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Divides the octave into 12 equal parts
Associated with Ravel, Stravinsky, Bartok, Mahler, Boulez, etc.
Associated with Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Monteverdi, etc.
Explores questions of music’s origin and the possibility of an evolutionary purpose for music
First described by Heinichen in his 1728 treatise on composition
Associated with Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert
A-flat tuned as a major third below C and G-sharp tuned as a major third above E will not be exactly the same note.
Embraces movements such as polystylism, conceptualism, minimalism, modernism, serialism, etc.
Devised by Arnold Schoenberg
The most “pronounced” harmonic note after the tonic
C-sharp and D-flat are equivalent
Also considered the “anthropology of music.”
An imitative polyphonic composition
I.e. a basic melody realized simultaneously by multiple voices
The relationship between these parts creates chords
Most basic being the octave
Usually for a keyboard instrument
Typically divided into phrases
Also called temporal modulation
May or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature
Generally applied to Italian song of the early 17th century
May be realized as just one note at a time
Often shares the interdisciplinary field of cognitive linguistics
Analysis of rhythm, harmony, melody, structure, and texture of music
Includes history, cultural use, technical aspects of produced sound, etc.
. Note “A” at modern concert pitch is defined to be 440 Hz
I.e. The fanfare of Petrushka (Stravinsky): 1st clarinet plays a melody in C major, 2nd clarinet plays a variant of the same melody using F sharp major.
Associated with Gabrielli, Taverner, Tallis, Des Prez, etc.
Associated with Chopin, Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Wagner, etc.
In western music theory, the octave is divided into 12 notes
First elaborated by Howard Hanson in connection with tonal music
Some publishers erroneously call them “3-part inventions” to avoid confusion with symphonies
The middle note of the subdominant triad
The pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically centered
One might transpose an entire piece of music into another key
Rather the musical aspects of sound produced and received by animals
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