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51 facts:

12-TET
   is   
The Most Common Musical Tuning System
Divides the octave into 12 equal parts
20th Century Classical Music
   is   
A Style of European Music Written Between 1900 & 2000
Associated with Ravel, Stravinsky, Bartok, Mahler, Boulez, etc.
Augmentation
   is   
Playing the Subject at a Longer Time Value
Baroque Music
   is   
A Style of European Classical Music Widespread Between 1600 & 1750
Associated with Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Monteverdi, etc.
Biomusicology
   is   
The Study of Music from a Biological Point of View
Explores questions of music’s origin and the possibility of an evolutionary purpose for music
Cadence
   is   
The Chord Progression That Comes at the Closing of a Musical Phrase
The Circle of Fifths
   is   
An Imaginary Geometrical Space Depicting Relationships Among the 12 Pitch Classes
First described by Heinichen in his 1728 treatise on composition
Classical Period
   is   
A Style of European Music Written Between 1730 and 1820
Associated with Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert
Comma
   is   
The Small Interval Between Two Enharmonic Notes Tuned in Different Ways
A-flat tuned as a major third below C and G-sharp tuned as a major third above E will not be exactly the same note.
Contemporary Classical Music
   is   
A Style of European Music Written Between 1975 and the Present
Embraces movements such as polystylism, conceptualism, minimalism, modernism, serialism, etc.
Dimunition
   is   
Playing the Subject at a Shorter Time Value
Dodecaphony
   is   
A 12-tone Musical Composition Method
Devised by Arnold Schoenberg
Dominant
   is   
The 5th Scale Degree
The most “pronounced” harmonic note after the tonic
Enharmonic
   is   
A Note Which is the Equivalent of Some Other Note but Spelled Differently
C-sharp and D-flat are equivalent
Ethnomusicology
   is   
The Study of Music in Its Cultural Context
Also considered the “anthropology of music.”
Fugue
   is   
Musical Themes Stated Successively in All of the Voices of a Contrapuntal Structure
An imitative polyphonic composition
Harmony
   is   
An Occurence when Two or More Pitches Are Sounded Simultaneously
Heterophony
   is   
Music Texture Where the Various Voices or Parts Are Differentiated in Character
I.e. a basic melody realized simultaneously by multiple voices
Homophony
   is   
Music Texture in Which Two or More Parts Move Together in Harmony
The relationship between these parts creates chords
Interval
   is   
The Difference in Pitch Between Two Notes
Most basic being the octave
Invention
   is   
A Short Composition With 2-part Counterpoint
Usually for a keyboard instrument
Inversion
   is   
Playing a Melody Upside-down
Leading Tone
   is   
The 7th Scale Degree
It “leads” to the tonic
Mediant
   is   
The 3rd Scale Degree, or Middle Note of the Tonic Triad
Medieval Music
   is   
A Style of European Music Written During the Middle Ages
Between 476 and 1400
Melody
   is   
A Series of Pitches Sounding in Succession
Typically divided into phrases
Metric Modulation
   is   
The Change from One Time Signature to Another Where a Note Value from the 1st is Made Equivalent to One in the 2nd
Also called temporal modulation
Mode
   is   
An Arrangement of the Diatonic Tones of an Octave
Modulation
   is   
The Process of Changing from One Key to Another
May or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature
Monody
   is   
A Solo Vocal Style Having a Single Melodic Line and Instrumental Accompaniment
Generally applied to Italian song of the early 17th century
Monophony
   is   
Melody Without Accompanying Harmony
May be realized as just one note at a time
Music Cognition
   is   
The Study of the Perception and Performance of Music from the Viewpoint of Cognitive Science
Often shares the interdisciplinary field of cognitive linguistics
Music Theory
   is   
Investigating the Nature or Mechanics of Music
Analysis of rhythm, harmony, melody, structure, and texture of music
Organology
   is   
The Study of Musical Instruments
Includes history, cultural use, technical aspects of produced sound, etc.
Pitch
   is   
The Property of Sound Determined by a Sound’s Frequency of Vibration
. Note “A” at modern concert pitch is defined to be 440 Hz
Polyphony
   is   
Music Texture Consisting of Two or More Independent Melodic Voices
Polytonality
   is   
The Use of More Than One Key Simultaneously
I.e. The fanfare of Petrushka (Stravinsky): 1st clarinet plays a melody in C major, 2nd clarinet plays a variant of the same melody using F sharp major.
Renaissance Music
   is   
The Style of European Music Written Between 1400 & 1600
Associated with Gabrielli, Taverner, Tallis, Des Prez, etc.
Retrograde
   is   
Playing a Melody Backwards
Rhythm
   is   
The Arrangement of Sounds in Time
Romantic Music
   is   
The Style of European Music Written Between 1815 and 1910
Associated with Chopin, Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Wagner, etc.
Rondo
   is   
Several Contrasting Episodes With Starting Material Returning After Each One
Classical musical form
Scale
   is   
A Pattern of Half and Whole Steps That Make up an Octave
In western music theory, the octave is divided into 12 notes
Set Theory
   is   
The Concepts for Categorizing Musical Objects and Describing Their Relationships
First elaborated by Howard Hanson in connection with tonal music
Sinfonia
   is   
A Composition Using 3-part Counterpoint
Some publishers erroneously call them “3-part inventions” to avoid confusion with symphonies
Subdominant
   is   
The 4th Scale Degree Immediately Below the Dominant
Submediant
   is   
The 6th Scale Degree
The middle note of the subdominant triad
Tonic
   is   
The First Note of a Musical Scale
The pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically centered
Transposition
   is   
The Process of Moving a Collection of Notes up or Down in Pitch by a Constant Interval
One might transpose an entire piece of music into another key
Tuning
   is   
The Process of Assigning Pitches to Notes
Zoomusicology
   is   
The Study of the Music of Animals
Rather the musical aspects of sound produced and received by animals


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