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A. Baldwin Wood
The High Volume Pump
(1879-1956), USA. most notably efficient low maintenance high volume pumps, including the Wood Screw Pump (1913) and the Wood Trash Pump (1915).
Abu-Mahmud Al-Khujandi
The Sextant
(940-1000), Persia
Adolphe Sax
The Saxophone
(1814-1894), Belgium. the saxophone was exhibited, demonstrated and played on several occasions during the year 1844 and it is thought that Sax invented his instrument at a somewhat earlier date.
Adrian Chernoff
(1971-), USA. AUTOnomy is the “Reinvention of the Automobile” and is the first vehicle to be designed from the ground up around a electric propulsion system combining drive-by-wire control technology and electric wheel hub motors. Adrian Chernoff has generated over 2,500 ideas, been issued 57 U.S. patents and 10 International Patents as inventor or co-inventor, and has an additional 55 pending U.S. and International patent applications.
Adrian Chernoff
Rubber Bandits
Rubber Bandits are rubber bands with tear resistant attached labels.
Aeneas Coffey
The Coffey Still
A continuous still originally introduced in 1830 and patented in Dublin, Ireland in 1831.
Aimé Argand
The Argand Style Lamp
1784; Geneve, Switzerland. Argand's design featured the incorporation of hollow cylinder within the circular wick, which allowed air to flow both inside and outside the flame at the upper edge of the fuel-soaked wick. Argand successfully obtained a patent for this lamp while living in England in 1784, and lamps built to his patent were quickly accepted throughout Europe, becoming the most common illumination in both public buildings and private homes.
Alberto Santos-Dumont
The "grasshopper" Monoplane
(1873-1932), Brazil. In November 1906, he flew 725 feet (220 meters) in 21 seconds. In 1909, he produced his "Demoiselle" or "Grasshopper" monoplane, the precursor to the modern light plane.
Alec Jeffreys
DNA Fingerprinting
1984; Oxford, United Kingdom. It was 9am, Monday September 15, 1984, when Sir Alec removed some X-ray film from the developing tank. he said. We had been looking for good genetic markers for basic genetic analysis and had stumbled on a way of establishing a human's genetic identification. By the afternoon we had named our discovery DNA fingerprinting."
Alessandro Volta
The Voltaic Pile
By 1800 he had developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery, which produced a steady stream of electricity. In honor of his work in the field of electricity, the electrical unit known as the volt was named in his honor.
Alexander Bain
The Facsimile (fax)
1842; Scotland. The patent for the fax machine was granted on 27 May 1843, 33 years before the patent was given for the telephone.
Alexander Graham Bell
The Induction Balance
In 1881 he hastily constructed an electromagnetic device called an induction balance to try and locate a bullet lodged in President Garfield after an assassin had shot him. He later improved this and produced a device called a telephone probe, which would make a telephone receiver click when it touched metal.
Alexander Parkes
(1831-1890), England. John Wesley Hyatt, an American chemist, would rediscover celluloid and market it successfullyas a replacement for ivory in the 1860s. Parkes died in London on June 29, 1890.
Alexandru Ciurcu
The Reaction Engine
(1854-1922), Romania
The Brass Astrolabe
(d. 796/806), Iraq (Mesopotamia). Abu abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari was a Muslim philosopher, mathematician and astronomer.
Alfred Nobel
Nobel endowed a $9 million fund in his will. The interest on this endowment was to be used as awards for people whose work most benefited humanity. He wanted the profit from his invention to be used to reward human ingenuity. First awarded in 1901, the Nobel Prize is still the most honored in the world.
Alfred Traeger
The Pedal Radio
(1895-1980), Australia
The Camera Obscura
(Ibn al-Haytham), (965-1039), Iraq (Mesopotamia)
The Crankshaft
And also , connecting rod, crank mechanism, combination lock, elephant clock, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, reciprocating piston engine, suction pump, segmental gear, valve, etc. (1136-1206), Iraq (Mesopotamia)
Almon Strowger
The Automatic Telephone Exchange
(1839-1902), USA. In 1896 the first system, this time using a dial, was built by the Automatic Electric Company of Chicago, based on Strowger’s patents. It went into operation at the City Hall in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Al-Razi (Rhazes)
The Soap Bar
(865-965), Persia distillation and extraction methods Sulphuric Acid Alcohol
Alan Shugart
The Floppy Disc
1930-2006, American, was a leading computer engineer
Alan Turing
Artificial Intelligence
1912-1954, English, was also a mathematician, philosopher and code-breaker
Alva Fisher
The Electric Powered Washing Machine
1909; Chicago, Illinois; United States. The Thor was the first electric-powered washing machine. Introduced in 1908 by the Hurley Machine Company of Chicago, Illinois.
Ammar Ibn Ali Al-Mawsili
The Injection Syringe
(9th century), Iraq (Mesopotamia). This early syringe was a hollow glass tube that used suction to remove cataracts from his patients’ eyes.
Anastase Dragomir
The Ejection Seat
(1896-1966), Romania
Anders Celsius
The Celsius Temperature Scale
Andreas Pavel
Portable Personal Stereo
Late 1960s. He reached an agreement with Sony in 2003, and was given a large cash settlement.
Andrew Simon Bell, David Brown, Nicholas Kenneth Terret
1990; Sandwich, Kent, United Kingdom
Anthony Plantson
The Dental Plate
USA in 1817
Anthony R. Barringer
The Input (induced Pulse Transient) Airborne Electromagnetic System
Canadian – American
Antonio Meucci
The Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876, but Italian Antonio Meucci was recognized by US Congress in 2002 as the true inventor.
Archibald Low
Radio Guidance Systems
(1882-1956), Britain
The Archimedes Screw
(c. 287-212 BC), Greece
Arnold O. Beckman
The PH Meter
(1900-2004), USA. A forerunner of modern electrochemical instrumentation, the scientific instrument simplified and expedited acidity and alkalinity measurements. It quickly became an indispensable tool in analytical chemistry and, in l987, earned him a place in the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Arthur Fry and Spencer Silver
Post-it Notes
Early 1970s. Spencer Silver invented the adhesive while working for 3M. Art Fry applied it to paper to fashion a more secure bookmark. 3M stuck on the name.
Arthur Paul Pedrick
The Chromatically Selective Cat Flap
And others. England.
Arthur Wynne
The Crossword Puzzle
(1862-1945), England. December 21, 1913 was the date and it appeared in a Sunday newspaper, the New York World. Wynne's puzzle differed from today's crosswords in that it was diamond shaped and contained no internal black squares.
Artur Fischer
Fasteners Including Fischertechnik
(1919–) Germany. He currently holds 1080 patents and 5867 trade rights and invented fischertechnik. He would still like to overtake Thomas Alva Edison, who holds 1093 patents.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel
The Fresnel Lens
(1788-1827), France
August Schrader
The Schrader Valve for Pneumatic Tire
Augustus Siebe
Closed Diving Helmet
(1788-1872), Germany. first produced in 1840, allowed divers to dive safely to greater depths than ever before. Attached to a rubber suit, it became the 'Standard Dress' that revolutionised diving and made the underwater worker an essential part of both salvage operations and civil engineering.
Aurel Stodola
The Gas Turbine
(1859-1942), Slovakia. Aurel Stodola's Steam and Gas Turbines, published in English in 1927 and reprinted many times up to 1945 was a basic reference for engineers working on the first generation of jet propulsion engines in the United States.
Barnes Wallis
The Bouncing Bomb
(1887-1979), England. Barnes also designed other bombs such as the Tallboy and also aircraft in common use during the War, such as the Wellington Bomber.
Bartolomeo Cristofori
The Piano
(1655-1731), Italy. Cristofori had been appointed in 1688 to the Florentine court of Grand Prince Ferdinando de' Medici to care for its harpsichords and eventually for its entire collection of musical instruments.
Bela Schick
The Diphtheria Test
(1877-1967), Hungary. gained international renown for the Schick Test. This test determined susceptibility to diphtheria, and eventually led to the eradication of the childhood disease that attacked 100,000 Americans in 1927, leading to about 10,000 deaths.
Benjamin Chew Tilghman
(1821-1897), USA
Benjamin Franklin
The Bifocal Lens
1784; Philadelphia, PA; United States. Ben had poor vision and needed glasses to read. He got tired of constantly taking them off and putting them back on, so he decided to figure out a way to make his glasses let him see both near and far. He had two pairs of spectacles cut in half and put half of each lens in a single frame.
Benjamin Franklin
The Franklin Stove
(1706-1790), USA. His invention of an iron furnace stove allowed people to warm their homes less dangerously and with less wood.
Benjamin Franklin
The Lightning Rod
Benoît Fourneyron
The Water Turbine
(1802-1867), France
Bernard Tellegen
The Pentode
(1900-1990), Netherlands. In 1926 he invented the penthode, which was patented in a number of countries. It was the first in a series of about 57 patents, which he received either alone or in cooperation with others.
Bette Nesmith Graham
Liquid Paper
(1924-1980), USA. It was originally called "mistake out", the invention of Bette Nesmith Graham, a Dallas secretary and a single mother raising a son* on her own. Graham used her own kitchen blender to mix up her first batch of liquid paper or white out, a substance used to cover up mistakes made on paper.
Beulah Louise Henry
The Vacuum Ice Cream Freezer
God bless this woman. The prolific inventor received 49 patents, although she has been credited with as many as 110 inventions over the course of her lifetime.
Bi Sheng
Clay Movable Type Printing
(ca.990-1051), China
Bryan Donkin
The Print Industry Composition Roller
(1768-1855), UK
C`ai Lun
(50 AD - 121), China. he was responsible for the first significant improvement and standardization of papermaking by adding essential new materials into its composition
Caleb Bradham
Pepsi Cola
The summer of 1898, as usual, was hot and humid in New Bern, North Carolina. So a young pharmacist named Caleb Bradham began experimenting with combinations of spices, juices, and syrups trying to create a refreshing new drink to serve his customers. This drink was known as Pepsi Cola!
Carl Djerass, Luis Miramontes, George Rosenkranz
The Contraceptive Pill
1951; Birmingham, Michigan; United States and México City, México
Carl Edvard Johansson
Gauge Blocks
(1864-1943), Sweden. He was granted his first Swedish patent on 2 May 1901, Swedish patent No. 17017 called "Gauge Block Sets for Precision Measurement".
Carl Rickard Nyberg
The Blowtorch
(1858-1939), Sweden
Carlton "Carl" Magee
The Parking Meter
Charles Algernon Parsons
The Steam Turbine
(1854-1931), British. at Heaton near Newcastle he founded the firm C A Parsons & Co for the development of steam turbines for use on land and in 1894 the Marine Steam Turbine Company at Wallsend-on-Tyne.
Charles Babbage
The Analytical Engine
(1791-1871), UK. 1833: began work on the Analytical Engine; 1834: founded the Statistical Society of London; 1864: published Passages from the Life of a Philosopher; 1871: Died.
Charles Darrow
1935; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; United States
Charles Fey
Slot Machines
In the San Francisco chronicle on April 15th 1887 reporting that a group of saloon and restaurant owners had gathered to watch Fey demonstrate his new Liberty Bell slot machine. The owners were impressed and everyone present predicted the machine would be a success. One hundred years later, that prediction can be considered somewhat of an understatement.
Charles F. Kettering
The Automobile Self-starter Ignition
(1876-1958), USA. Electric auto ignition and self-starter for automobiles first appeared on the 1912 Cadillac. Within a few years, Delco produced a complete starting, ignition and lighting system that is credited with the phenomenal rise of the automobile industry.
Charles Francis Richter
The Richter Earthquake Magnitude Scale
(1900-1985), USA
Charles Gabriel Pravaz
The Hypodermic Syringe
1853; France. In 1853, French physician Charles Pravaz developed the first practical metal syringe. Pravaz added a fine, hollow needle to the end of his syringe instead of the tube.
Charles Goodyear
The Vulcanization of Rubber
(1800-1860), USA. Rubber products melted in hot weather, froze and cracked in cold, and adhered to virtually everything until the day in the mid-19th century when inventor Charles Goodyear accidentally dropped some rubber mixed with sulfur on a hot stove.
Charles Macintosh
The Waterproof Raincoat, Life Vest
(1766-1843), Scotland. Although Macintosh is best known for his eponymously-titled coats, he was a brilliant chemist with achievements in many different fields. He invented a revolutionary bleaching powder (along with Charles Tennant), devised a way of using carbon gases to convert malleable iron to steel by a short-cut method, and worked out a hot-blast process with James Neilson to produce high quality cast iron.
Charles Simonyi
Hungarian Notation (computing Convention)
(1948-), Hungary. Simonyi remained at Microsoft during its meteoric rise in the software industry, becoming one of its highest-ranking developers. He left abruptly in 2002 to co-found, with business partner Gregor Kiczales, a company called Intentional Software
Charles Strite
The Toaster
Charles Strite invented the modern timer, pop-up toaster in 1919.
Chester Carlston
The Photocopy Machine
1938; Jackson Heights, New York; United States. Carlson studied law at night school and ensured a somewhat steady job at Mallory in their patents department as a patents 'lawyer'. He worked at his invention from the kitchen of his house and arrived at something he termed 'electrophotography'. His first patent was applied for in October 1937.
Chester Greenwood
Thermal Earmuffs
(1858-1937), USA. He invented earmuffs at the age of 15 (1873). He made a fortune supplying Ear Protectors to U.S. soldiers during World War I.
Chris Haney and Scott Abbott
Trivial Pursuit
At the time, Chris Haney worked as a photo editor at the Montreal Gazette, and Scott Abbott was a sports journalist for The Canadian Press. The two friends came up with the basic concept of Trivial Pursuit within a few short hours. The pair were playing a game of Scrabble when they decided to invent their own game. However, it was not until 1981 that the board game was commercially released.
Christiaan Huygens
The Clock Pendulum
1656; Netherlands. In fact his invention on Christmas 1656, the pendulum clock (patented 1657), was a breakthrough in timekeeping. Devices known as escapements regulate the rate of a watch or clock, and the anchor escapement represented a major step in the development of accurate watches.
Christian Schnabel
Simplistic Food Cutlery
(1878-1936), German. "The easy is the most difficult" is a famous word of Schnabel and it also became the principle of his life: Schnabel mostly experimented on everyday objects trying to improve them.
Christopher Cockerell
The Hovercraft
The theory behind one of the most successful inventions of the 20th century, the Hovercraft, was originally tested in 1955 using an empty KiteKat cat food tin inside a coffee tin, an industrial air blower and a pair of kitchen scales.
Christopher Latham Sholes
The Typewriter
1868; United States. In 1864, he and a friend, Samuel W. Soule', were granted a patent for a page numbering machine. A fellow inventor-mechanic, Carlos Glidden, suggested to Sholes that he might rework his device into a letter printing machine and referred him to a published account of a writing machine devised by John Pratt of London. Sholes was so intrigued by the idea that he spent the remainder of his life on the project.
Clarence Birdseye
Fast Frosted Food
1927; Gloucester, Massachusetts; United States
Clarence Saunders
The Supermarket
1916; Memphis, Tennessee; United States. Piggly Wiggly was the first great grocery store chain. It was started around 1915 by a Memphis man named Clarence Saunders, who built the chain from one to over a thousand locations in less than five years.
Coenraad Johannes Van Houten
Cocoa Powder, Cocoa Butter, Chocolate Milk
(1801-1887), Netherlands
Colin Sullivan
CPAP Sleep Apnea Control Machine
Australian Professor. CPAP stands for Continous Positive Airway Pressure. Now listed on the Australian and NY Stock Exchange as ResMed.
Corliss Orville Burandt
Variable Valve Timing
Working through a 1965 Corvair, he designed a system of putting a sensor into the cylinder to optimize the fuel-air mixture during combustion. He claims that the hybrid autos which are on the market today use technology from his patents.
Cornelis Corneliszoon
The Sawmill
(1550-1607), The Netherlands. His wind-powered sawmill used a crankshaft to convert a windmill's circular motion into a back-and-forward motion powering the saw. This allowed wood to be cut at high precision and at a much faster rate (30 times faster) than could be achieved manually.
Cornelis Drebbel
The Submarine
Drebbel started making his submarine, which was probably based on a rowing boat with raised and meeting sides, covered in greased leather, with a watertight hatch in the middle, a rudder and four oars. Under the rowers' seats were large pigskin bladders, connected by pipes to the outside. Rope was used to tie off the empty bladders; in order to dive, the rope was untied and the bladders filled. To surface the crew squashed the bladders flat, squeezing out the water.
Count Factacular
All hail the Count!
Daniel David Palmer
(1845-1913), Canada. DD performed the initial chiropractic adjustment in September 1895 and later in The Chiropractor's Adjustment.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
The Fahrenheit Temperature Scale
Until the 1970s the Fahrenheit scale was in general common use in the English-speaking countries; the Celsius, or centigrade, scale was employed in most other countries and for scientific purposes worldwide. Since that time, however, most English-speaking countries have officially adopted the Celsius scale. The conversion formula for a temperature that is expressed on the Celsius representation is: F = (9/5 C) + 32.
Daniel J. O'Conor and Herbert A. Faber
In its early years, Formica manufactured insulation along with other products such as phenolic composite gears, developing its classic range of surfacing laminates from the late 1920s. During World War II it manufactured plastic-impregnated wooden airplane propellers. Post-war, engineering uses declined, ceasing in 1970 in favour of decorative laminates.
David Schwarz
The Dirigible Airship
He had constructed the first dirigible airship in 1896, which was tested with partial success at Tempelhof near Berlin, Germany, on November 3, 1897.
Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt
The Automatic Door
Horton Automatics developed and sold the first automatic sliding door in America in 1960. The company co-founders Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt invented the sliding automatic door in 1954. Their automatic doors used a mat actuator.
Dean Kamen
Invented the Segway HT Scooter and the Ibot Mobility Device
(1951-), USA. As an inventor, Dean holds more than 440 U.S. and foreign patents, many of them for innovative medical devices that have expanded the frontiers of health care worldwide.
Denis Papin
The Pressure Cooker
The first version of a pressure cooker was created in 1680 by Denis Papin. He made a large cast iron vessel with a lid that locked. His version raised cooking temperatures by 15% over boiling, and accordingly reduced cooking time. However, regulating the steam and temperature was difficult, and explosions were common.
Dennis Gabor
The Hologram
Holography was invented in 1947 by Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor (1900–1979), work for which he received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1971.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
The Periodic Table
1907, formulated the periodic table, one of the most useful and important generalizations of chemistry and of all science.
Donat Banki and János Csonka
The Carburetor
It was invented by Hungarian scientists Donát Bánki and János Csonka in 1893.
Don Wetzel
The Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)
Don Wetzel was the co-patentee and chief conceptualist of an automated teller machine, an idea he said he thought of while waiting in line at a Dallas bank. The concept first began in 1968, a working prototype came about in 1969 and Docutel was issued a patent in 1973
Douglas Engelbart
The Computer Mouse
As far back as the 1960s he was touting the use of computers for online conferencing and collaboration. Engelbart's most famous invention is the computer mouse, also developed in the 1960s, but not used commercially until the 1980s.
Earl Bascom
Hornless Bronc Saddle
Earl Bascom is known in rodeo history as the inventor, designer and maker of the first hornless bronc saddle (1922) and the first one-hand bareback rigging (1924), both of which are now used world-wide at all professional rodeos.
Earl Bascom
Rodeo Bareback Rigging
In 1924, Earl Bascom invented and manufactured the rodeo's first one-hand bareback rigging, which is still in use at rodeos around the world.
Earle Dickson
Band-Aids / Sticky Plasters
1892-1961, American, he was a employee of Johnson & Johnson
Earl of Sandwich
The Sandwich
They were named for the very same person for whom the sandwich that we eat was named, John Montagu (1718-1792), the Fourth Earl of Sandwich.
Earl Silas Tupper
Tupper founded the Tupperware Plastics Company in 1938, and in 1946, he introduced Tupper Plastics to hardware and department stores.
Edwin Beard Budding
The Lawnmower
In 1830 he invented the lawn mower. He got the idea after seeing a machine in a local cloth mill which used a cutting cylinder (or bladed reel) mounted on a bench to trim cloth to make a smooth finish after weaving.
Edwin H. Armstrong
FM (frequency Modulated) Radio
Edwin H. Armstrong was responsible for the Regenerative Circuit (1912), the Superheterodyne Circuit (1918), the Superregenerative Circuit (1922) and the complete FM System (1933). His inventions and developments form the backbone of radio communications as we know it.
Edwin Holmes
The Burglar Alarm
This burglar alarm was a very simple machine; a spring was released upon the opening of a window or door, which would then close an electrical circuit.
Edwin Land
Polaroid Land Camera
In the late 1940s it introduced the first model of its most successful product, the self-developing Polaroid Land camera.
Elijah McCoy
The Rotary Machine Lubricator
In April 1915, McCoy received a patent for what he called a "Locomotive Lubricator." Within his patent application, he claimed that this invention would permit the use of graphite "without danger of clogging."
Elisha Otis
The Safety Elevator
Otis designed the first safe elevator when he needed to lift heavy building materials, while converting a sawmill into a factory in Yonkers, New York.
Eli Whitney
The Cotton Gin
After perfecting his machine he filed an application for a patent on June 20, 1793; in February 1794 he deposited a model at the Patent Office, and on March 14 he received his patent.
Elmer Ambrose Sperry
The Gyroscope-guided Automatic Pilot
He patented more than 400 inventions in his lifetime. He was also a pioneer in the manufacture of electric mining machinery, electric streetcars, and electric motors. In 1915 Sperry produced a high-intensity arc searchlight, which was widely used by armed forces during World War I (1914-1918).
Elmer R. Gates
The Foam Fire Extinguisher
He pursued invention primarily to study the processes of the mind while it engaged in its best work. Through years of recorded observations, he discovered psychotaxis, the integrated hierarchy of sensory discriminations required to create a valid and complete mental representation of a given part of the physical world.
Emile Berliner
The Disc Record Gramophone
Early attempts to design a consumer sound or music playing gadget began in 1877 when Thomas Edison invented his tin-foil phonograph. On November 8 1887, Emile Berliner, patented a successful system of sound recording Berliner was the first inventor to stop recording on cylinders and start recording on flat disks or records
Enrico Fermi
The Nuclear Reactor
Upon the discovery of fission, by Hahn and Strassmann early in 1939, he immediately saw the possibility of emission of secondary neutrons and of a chain reaction. He proceeded to work with tremendous enthusiasm, and directed a classical series of experiments which ultimately led to the atomic pile and the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. This took place in Chicago on December 2, 1942 - on a squash court situated beneath Chicago's stadium.
Erik Rotheim
The Aerosol
On November 23, 1927, Erik Rotheim (also spelled Eric Rotheim) patented the first aerosol can and valve that could hold and dispense products and propellant systems. This was the forerunner of the modern aerosol can and valve. In 1998, the Norwegian post office issued a stamp celebrating the Norwegian invention of the spray can.
Erno Rubik
The Rubik Cube
Rubik applied for his Hungarian patent in January 1975 and left his invention with a small toy making cooperative in Budapest. The patent approval finally came in early 1977 and the first Cubes appeared at the end of 1977.
Erna Schneider Hoover
The Computerized Telephone Switching System
The principles of Erna Schneider Hoover's design are still used today, she was awarded one of the first software patents ever issued (Patent #3,623,007, Nov. 23, 1971). Bell Labs made her their first female supervisor of a technical department.
Ernst Ruska
The Electron Microscope
With the idea that electrons having shorter wavelengths than light could give better microscopic resolution than optical microscopes, in 1931 Ruska created the first electron lens under the tutelage of Dr. Max Knoll at the Technical University in Berlin. In 1933 he refined this development into the electron microscope, with performance a full order of magnitude better than the best optics.
Eugen Baumann
Polyvinyl chloride or PVC was first created by the German chemist Eugen Baumann in 1872. Eugen Baumann never applied for a patent.
Eugene Polley and Robert Adler
The Televison Remote Control
Eugen Pavel
The Hyper Cd-rom
The romanian "Hyper - CD-Rom", created by dr. Eugen Pavel, brought him 4 more patents for invention and the technology of making a special glass(fluorescent and photosensitive) on which the 3 D memorization can be realised, glass of which the Hyper - CD - Rom is made; for the new system of writing- reading adapted at the existing instalations; for the technology on memorizing the information on the disk, with the help of the laser; for the technology of multiplication of the Hyper - CD- Rom.
Evangelista Torricelli
The Barometer
Evangelista Torricelli became the first scientist to create a sustained vacuum and to discover the principle of a barometer. Torricelli realized that the variation of the height of the mercury from day to day was caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Torricelli built the first mercury barometer around 1644.
Ezra J. Warner
The Can Opener
The first (patented in 1858), devised by Ezra Warner of Waterbury, Connecticut, looked like a bent bayonet. Its large curved blade was driven into a can’s rim, then forcibly worked around its edge. Stranger yet, this first type of can opener never left the grocery store. A clerk had to open each can before it was taken away!
Felix Hoffmann
Within a two-week period in August of 1897, Felix Hoffmann synthesized aspirin, one of the most widely beneficial drugs ever, and heroin, one of the most harmful of illegal substances.
Felix Wankel
The Wankel Engine
After much experimentation, he completed the design of a rotary-piston engine. The year after, he successfully produced a model with a curved equilateral triangular rotor in a figure-of-eight-shaped chamber. By 1957, the first unit was tested.
Ferdinand Von Zeppelin
The Airship Balloon
1838-1917, German, July 2, 1900 first zeppelin flies, carrying 5 passengers a distance of 3.75 miles
Florence Nightingale
The Coxcomb Chart
The 'coxcomb' chart - similar to today's pie chart - was invented by Nightingale to highlight to members of Parliament the proportion of men dying in battle versus those dying of curable illness during the Crimean War.
Francis Beaufort
The Beaufort Wind Speed Scale
It was first used officially by Robert Fitzroy in 1831 and adopted by the British Admiralty in 1838. When sail gave way to steam the scale was modified by defining levels on it in terms of the state of the sea or, following George Simpson, wind speed.
Franc Trkman
Electrical Switches, Accessories for Opening Windows
His invention of electrical switches for electrical hot plates was a hit immediately, and after the Second World War demand was so great he was forced to sell the license.
Frank Hornby
He wanted to invent something which would be useful to boys in making their minds grow. Then when they became men, they could make use of the knowledge they had gained by using his invention when they were boys.
Frank J. Zamboni
The Zamboni Ice Resurfacing Machine)
In 1949 Frank got the first self-propelled, single operator resurfacing ice machine working. He was granted a strong pantent diesign on the world first invention.
Frank McNamara and Ralph Schneider
The Credit Card
1950: With his attorney, Ralph Schneider, Frank McNamara creates Diners Club. The first charge card is offered to 200 people, most of whom are personal friends and acquaintances. Fourteen New York restaurants agree to accept the card.
Frank Whittle
The Jet Engine
Frank Whittle is known as the inventor of the jet engine. He had the idea of using a gas turbine for jet propulsion, and applied for his first patent on the idea in January 1930
Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist
The Kerosene Stove Operated by Compressed Air
The paraffin, (kerosene), pressure stove first apeared in 1892 when a Swede, Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, registered his 'Sootless Kerosene Stove'. The design burned Paraffin gas which was vaporised from the liquid fuel in tubes forming the burner head.
Frederick Grant Banting
Synthetic Insulin
Frederick Grant Banting developed insulin in 1921 and after two additional years of development and study he produced the first synthetic insulin.
Frederick Walton
In 1860, rubber manufacturer Fredrick Walton invented linoleum, the floor and wall covering often used in Victorian homes.
Fritz Klatte
Vinyl Acetate
The synthesis of vinyl acetate monomer was patented in Germany by Dr Fritz Klatte in 1913
Fritz Pfleumer
Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape was first patented by the German engineer Fritz Pfleumer in 1928, based on the invention of the magnetic wire by Valdemar Poulsen in 1898.
Garrett A. Morgan
The Gas Mask
On July 25, 1916, Garrett Morgan made national news for using his gas mask to rescue 32 men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel 250 feet beneath Lake Erie.
Garrett A. Morgan
The Traffic Light
Garrett Morgan took his turn at inventing a traffic signal. Other inventors had experimented with, marketed, and even patented traffic signals, however, Garrett Morgan was one of the first to apply for and acquire a U.S. patent for an inexpensive to produce traffic signal. The patent was granted on November 20, 1923.
George Eastman
The Camera
In 1884, Eastman patented a paper-backed film. Soonafter, he developed roll holders for the new film. Later, he developed a camera that was sold already loaded, allowing novices to take pictures. He called his camera Kodak, which had one hundred exposures and sold for twenty-five dollars.
George Eastman
The Film-roll
(1854-1932), USA
George Hancock
In 1887, George Hancock, a reporter for Chicago Board of Trade, invented softball. He invented the game as a form of indoor baseball on a cold winter day inside the warm Farragut Boat Club.
George Pullman
The Pullman Sleep Wagon
Pullman's railroad coach or sleeper was designed for overnight passenger travel. Sleeping cars were being used on American railroads since the 1830s, however, they were not that comfortable and the Pullman Sleeper was very comfortable.
Georges Claude
The Neon Lamp
The French engineer, chemist, and inventor Georges Claude (b. Sept. 24, 1870, d. May 23, 1960), was the first person to apply an electrical discharge to a sealed tube of neon gas (circa 1902) to create a lamp. Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.
George Stephenson
The Steam Locomotive
By 1814 he had constructed a locomotive that could pull thirty tons up a hill at 4 mph. Stephenson called his locomotive, the Blutcher. The Blutcher was the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotive.
George Westinghouse
Hydroelectric Development of Niagara Falls
The hydroelectric development of Niagara Falls by George Westinghouse in 1896 inaugurated the practice of placing generating stations far from consumption centers.
George William Manby
The Fire Extinguisher
George William Manby (1765-1854) invented the first fire extinguisher in 1813. Manby, who had been a member of the British militia, had observed the inability of firemen in Edinburgh to reach the upper floors of burning buildings and was inspired to create a means of remedying that difficulty.
Gerhard Sessler and James West
The Foil Electret Microphone, Silicon Microphone
Gerhard Sessler and James West invented the foil electret microphone while working at Bell Laboratories. This device, which was finalized in 1962, combines high performance features, such as broad frequency range, low noise, and high sensitivity with low cost. Its commercial production began in 1968. Today, almost one billion electret microphones are manufactured annually
Gideon Sundback
The Zipper
1880-1954, Swedish, invented in 1913 and patented as the "Hookless Fastener"
Gordon Gould
The Laser
Gould abandoned his doctorate in order to get his invention into production quickly. He spent 1958 refining and improving his model, but did not file for a patent until 1959, believing that he had to build a prototype before filing. Unfortunately, this resulted in a 20-year legal battle, which Gould finally won in 1977, when the first of his laser patents was issued.
Gotfred Christiansen
The company officially launched the “LEGO System of Play” in 1955, which comprised 28 different sets and eight toy vehicles. LEGO patented the bricks’ “stud-and-tube coupling system” in 1958. That year, founder Christiansen died. His son Godtfred immediately took the LEGO helm
Gottleib Daimler
The Motorcycle
In 1885 he is credited with building the first motorcycle.
Graeme Clark
The Cochlear Implant
Australian Professor. Bionic ear for profoundly deaf people. Rod Saunders was the first Cochlear implant recipient in 1978.
The Greeks
The Olympic Games
776 b.c.
The Greeks
The Shower
600 b.c.
Gunter Burstyn
The Army Tank
He designed in 1911 the first cross-country tank with swivelling turret. The draft design, which was more modern than the tanks of the First World War
Gustaf Dalén
The Lighthouse Beacon Sun Valve
In 1907 he invented the ingenious sun valve which automatically switches on lighthouse beacons when darkness falls and switches them off at dawn.
Gustaf Erik Pasch
The Safety Match
In 1844, Professor Gustaf Erik Pasch received a patent for invention of the safety match. Pasch replaced poisonous yellow phosphorus with non-poisonous red phosphorus.
György Jendrassik
The Turboprop
His last invention of great importance was the pressure-compensating device. The first turbine possessing its own independent combustion chamber.
Hans Christian Ørsted
(1777–1851), Denmark One of the most distinguished scientific discoverers and physicists of his time.
Hans Lippershey
The Telescope
While others later claimed to have invented the device, it was Lippershey who applied to the government of the Netherlands for a patent in 1608.
Hans Wilhelm Geiger
The Geiger Counter
(1882-1945), Germany
Harold P.Brown
The Electric Chair
USA 1888. Mr. Harold Brown made the first model. When Kemmler was executed no one was sure how much power was used. Kemmler was burned and the autopsy described his flesh as well cooked beef.
Harry Brearley
Stainless Steel
1915; Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Hedy Lamarr and George Antheil
The Torpedo Guidance System
(1913-2000), Austria and USA. She and her co-inventor, George Antheil, later went on to invent the torpedo guidance system that was two decades before its time.
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
Liquified Helium
(1853-1926), Netherlands. His efforts to reach extremely low temperatures culminated in the liquefaction of helium in 1908. Bringing the temperature of the helium down to 0,9°K, he reached the nearest approach to absolute zero then achieved, thus justifying the saying that the coldest spot on earth was situated at Leyden.
Heinrich Hertz
Radio Telegraphy, Electromagnetic Radiation
(1857-1894), Germany. From 1885 to 1889 Hertz became the first person to broadcast and receive radio waves, and to establish the fact that light was a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Helge Palmcrantz
The Multi-barrel, Lever-actuated, Machine Gun
(1842-1880), Sweden. In 1873 Palmcrantz patented the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun that later would be known as the Nordenfelt machine-gun.
Henri Coandă
The Jet Aircraft
(1886-1972), Romania. In 1910 the Coanda was built, a revolutionary aircraft in many ways. First and foremost, it is now being recognized as the first jet engine aircraft, making its first and only flight on 16 December, 1910.
Henri Giffard
The First Passenger Airship
(1825-1882), France. Giffard created the world's first passenger-carrying powered and steerable airship, called a dirigible. The hydrogen-filled airship was equipped with a 3-hp steam engine that drove a propeller. He also installed a vertical rudder.
Henry J. Heinz
Tomato Ketchup
Henry Maudslay
The Slide Rest
He invented the 'slide rest' which let the tool rest slide the length of a lathe and be accurately set simply by using a handle. Later he devised a method of moving the rest by turning a handle.
Henry Perky
Shredded Wheat
In 1892, he took his idea of a product made of boiled wheat to his friend, William H. Ford, in Watertown, NY - a machinist by trade. Here they developed the machine for making a “biscuit,” which they then baked - creating a palatable dry cereal which would keep.
Henry Shrapnel
Shrapnel Shell Ammunition
Henry Shrapnel invented his shrapnel shell for cannons in 1784, which was later adopted by the British army in 1803 for cannons and rifles.
Henry W. Seely
The Electric Iron
On June 6, 1882, Henry W. Seely of NYC patented the electric iron, at the time it was called the electric flatiron.
Heron of Alexandria
The Ancient Aeolipile-steam Engine
Heron of Alexandria invented a steam powered rotating ball in Circa 100 AD. This is the first recorded steam power.
Hidetsugu Yagi
The Yagi Antenna
This groundbreaking invention combined a simple structure with high performance. Most ultra short or extremely short wave receiving antennas, such as TV antennas, use this structure.
Hippolyte Mégge-Mouriés
In 1869 Emperor Louis Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory substitute for butter, suitable for use by the lower classes. French chemist Hippolyte Mge-Mouri's invented a substance he called oleomargarine, the name of which became shortened to the trade name "Margarine".
Holger Crafoord
The Artificial Kidney
In 1964, Holger Crafoord founded Gambro AB in Lund, Sweden, where the technique of manufacturing the artificial kidney was developed.
Howard Tracy Hall
The Synthetic Diamond
The diamonds that come out of the presses are not gem-quality, but are used for industrial purposes. The prices of drills, diamond dust, grinders, and other things requiring the hardness of diamonds have all dropped substantially because of this invention.
Hoyle Schweitzer and James Drake
The Windsurf Table
On May 15 1967 in Marina del Rey, California, Jim took the first step on the first windsurfer that he designed and built in his Santa Monica garage. Hoyle co-developed the sailboard with James Drake in 1967. He is known as the man who brought windsurfing to the masses.
Hubert Cecil Booth
The Vacuum Cleaner
Booth conceived the principle of his vacuum cleaner after witnessing the cleaning of a railway carriage by means of compressed air which simply blew a great cloud of dust around.
Igor Sikorsky
The Helicopter
Captivated by the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci and the stories of Jules Verne, Igor Sikorsky built a rubber-band powered model helicopter when he was 12. From there he developed the helicopter.
Ira Remsen and Constantin Fahlberg
Remsen's great discovery was the accidental discovery of saccharin, along with his German student, Constantin Fahlberg, while they were investigating the reactions of a class of coal tar derivatives ( toluene sulfamides ).
Isaac Newton
The Cat Flap
Well... maybe. Wikipedia says 'A widespread story attributes the invention of the cat flap to Sir Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century, although no sources are usually provided for this claim'.
Iwan Serrurier
The Moviola
Upright film editing machine. (1924), USA
Jack Kilby
The Handheld Calculator
Electrical engineer. Nobel, Draper, and Kyoto Prize winner
Jack Kilby
The Micro Chip
From Jack Kilby's first simple circuit has grown a worldwide integrated circuit market whose sales in 2006 totaled $210 billion.
Jacob Schick
The Electric Razor
Schick was devoted to his dry shaver concept. In 1927, his electric was perfected to the point of being a marketable product.
Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan
The Aqualung (scuba)
In 1943, with the help of engineer Emile Gagnan, he designed an underwater breathing apparatus based on compressed air contained inside a cylinder. The invention of the "Aqua-Lung " (SCUBA) made the two men very rich.
Jacques E. Brandenberger
Brandenberger was seated at a restaurant when a customer spilt wine onto the tablecloth. As the waiter replaced the cloth, Brandenberger decided that he would invent a clear flexible film that could be applyed to cloth, making it waterproof. By 1908, he developed the first machine for the manufacture of transparent sheets of regenerated cellulose.
James Faria and Robert Wright
Astro Turf
The first Patent for a domestic and outdoor sport artificial grass was registered in the US at the United States Patent Office on July 25 1976, Patent no. 3332828 this was registered by James M Faria and Robert T Wright for the Monsanto Company Inc. for a monofilament ribbon surface that would later become 'Astro Turf'.
James Hargreaves
The Spinning Jenny
The original machine was produced some time between 1764 and 1767. Hargreaves may have been a talented inventor, but he was not a shrewd businessman. He didn't apply for a patent for his Spinning Jenny until 1770, by which time many others had copied his ideas, reaping the rewards that were rightly his.
James Henry Greathead
The Tunnel Boring Machine, Tunnelling Shield Technique
London was the first city in the world to have an underground railway system. Greathead’s statue stands at the top of Cornhill, and was put up in 1994.
James Nasmyth
The Steam Hammer
In 1840 James Nasmyth secured the patent for his design and went into production for his own hammers in Edinburgh.
James Puckle
The Machine Gun
James Puckle a London Lawyer was granted the patent in 1718 for a Portable Gun.
James Ritty
The Cash Register
On January 30, 1883, James Ritty invented what was nicknamed the "Incorruptible Cashier" or the first working, mechanical cash register.
James Schlatter
It was discovered by accident in 1965 when James Schlatter, a chemist of G.D. Searle Company, was testing an anti-ulcer drug.
James Wright
Silly Putty
1943; New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir
The Internal Combustion Engine
One of these engines powered a road vehicle in 1863; another ran a boat. Because of improved designs by Nikolaus Otto and other inventors, the Lenoir engine became obsolete and only about 500 Lenoir engines were built.
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault
The Foucault Pendulum
In January 1851 he succeeded in constructing such a pendulum in the basement of his house. It did indeed retain its position in space, demonstrating clearly for the first time that the Earth rotates.
Jesse W Reno
The Escalator
On March 15 1892, Jesse Reno patented his moving stairs or inclined elevator as he called it. In 1895, Jesse Reno created a new novelty ride at Coney Island from his patented design, a moving stairway that elevated passengers on a conveyor belt at a 25 degree angle
Jethro Tull
The Seed Drill
János Csonka
The Carburetor
(1852-1939), Hungary
János Irinyi
The Noiseless Match
(1817-1895), Hungary
Johannes Gutenberg
The Letterpress
Johann Maria Farina
Eau De Cologne
(1685–1766), Germany
Johann Vaaler
The Paperclip
Johan Lundstrom
The Safety Match
He solved the problem of "phossy jaw".
John A. Larson
The Polygraph Lie Detector
1921; United States
John Ambrose Fleming
The Vacuum Diode
(1848-1945), England
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley
The Transistor
John Bennet Lawes
Superphosphate or Chemical Fertilizer
(1814-1900), England
John Hadley
The Octant
(1682-1744), England
John Harrison
The Chronometer
UK in 1735
John Harvey Kellogg
John Harwood, Harry Cutts
The Wrist Watch
1923; Isle of Man and New Brighton; United Kingdom
John Hetrick
The Automobile Airbag
1952; Newport, Pennsylvania; United States
John Hopps
The Pacemaker
An external pacemaker - it was too large to fit inside a human.
John Moses Browning
An Automatic Handgun
(1855-1926), USA
John Napier
(1550-1617), Scotland
John Pemberton
John Roebling
The Suspension Bridge
1806-1869, German, in 1845-46, he built the first suspension bridge to carry a highway across the Monongahela River.
John Roebuck
The Lead Chamber Process for Sulphuric Acid Synthesis
(1718-1794) England
John Vincent Atanasoff
The Modern Programmable Computer
(1903-1995), United States
John Wesley Hyatt
Celluloid Manufacturing
(1837-1920), USA
Johan Petter Johansson
The Pipe Wrench and the Modern Adjustable Spanner
(1853-1943), Sweden
Jonas Wenström
The Three-phase Electrical System
(1855-1893), Sweden
Joseph and Etiénne Montgolfier
The Hot-air Ballon
1783; Annoday, Ardéche; France
Joseph-Armand Bombardier
The Snowmobile
(1907-1964), Canada
Joseph Constantine Carpue
Rhinoplastic Surgery
(1764-1846), France
Joseph Henry
The Electromagnetic Relay
(1797-1898), USA
Josephine Cochrane
The Dishwasher
Joseph Niepce
The Photograph
Joseph Plateau
The Phenakistiscope (stroboscope)
(1801-1883), Belgium
Jozef Karol Hell
The Water Pillar
(1713-1789), Slovakia
Jozef Murgas
The Wireless Telegraph
(forerunner of the radio) (1864-1929), Slovakia
J. Stuart Blackton
Animated Motion Pictures
1906; New York, United States
Juan De La Cierva
The Autogyro
(1895-1936), Spain
Jun-Ichi Nishizawa
The Optical Communication System, Sit/sith (static Induction Transistor/thyristor), Laser Diode, Pin Diode
(1926-), Japan
Kalman Tihanyi
The Cathode Ray Tube and Iconoscope
(1897-1947), Hungary
Karl Benz
The Car
Karl Ferdinand
The Television Tube
Karl Von Reichenbach
Paraffin, Creosote Oil, Phenol
Kasey Hebert
Or at least is the first known shampoo-maker.
Katharine B. Blodgett
Non-reflective Glass
(1898-1979), UK
Kees A. Schouhamer Immink
The Compact Disc
(1946- ), Netherlands
Kenneth Olsen
Magnetic Core Memory
Kenneth Wood
The Food Processor
King Camp Gillette
The Safety Razor
Konrad Zuse
The First Computer
(Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4) , (22. June 1910 - 18. December 1995), Germany
Lagari Hasan Celebi
The Rocket Aircraft
(fl. 1633-1640), Turkey
Lars Magnus Ericsson
The Handheld Micro Telephone
(1846-1926), Sweden
Laszlo Biro
The Modern Ballpoint Pen
(1899-1985), Hungary
Lee DeForest
The Triode
Also known as the Audion tube. (1873-1961), USA
LeMarcus A. Thompson
The Roller Coaster
1884; United States
Leo Baekeland
Velox Photographic Paper
(1863-1944), Belgian–American
Leo Szilard
The Atomic Bomb
(1898-1964), Hungary
Les Paul
Multitrack Recording
(1915-), USA
Levi Strauss
Blue Jeans
(1829-1902), USA
Lewis Edson Waterman
The Fountain Pen
Lewis Urry
The Long-lasting Alkaline Battery
(1927-2004), Canada
Linus Yale Jr
A Lock
1821-1868, American, he made radical innovations in lock making that were the basis for the modern key and tumbler lock
Lloyd Groff Copeman
The Electric Stove
(1865- 1956), USA
Louis Braille
The Braille Writing System
(1809-1852), France
Louis Pasteur
1864; St. Cloud,France
Louis Réard
The Bikini
1946; Paris, France
Luigi Palmieri
The Seismometer
(1807-1896), Italy
Marcian Hoff
The Microprocessor
Electrical engineer. At Intel
Martin Cooper
The Cell Phone
1973. A former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, is considered the inventor of the first portable handset and the first person to make a call on a portable cell phone - to one of his competitors.
Marvin Camras
Magnetic Recording
(1916 - 1995), USA
Mary Anderson
The Windscreen Wiper
Mary Phelps Jacob
The Brassiere
1913; New York, United States
Maurice Levy
1915; United States
Michael Faraday
The Electric Transformer
(1791-1867), England
Michael Faraday
Rubber Balloons
In 1824 - for use in his hydrogen experiments at the Royal Institution in London.
Michel Frenkel
The Catalytic Converter
1909; Paris, France
Miksa Deri
The Transformer
(1854-1938), Hungary
Minoru Abe
The Wind Power Generator
1980; Kashiwa, Japan
M.J. "Jack" Burchett
The Snowboard
1929. The first patent for a snowboard was in 1939 - Vern Wicklund. Then 1965 Sherman Poppen invented the Snurfer. And then, Jake Burton invented the first snowboard binding. In 1980, he released the snowboard that we know and love today. Unless you ski. In which case, darn those snowboarders always ruining the slopes.
Mrs. W. A. Cockran
The Automatic Dishwasher
USA 1889
Narcis Monturiol I Estarriol
The Steam-powered Submarine
(1819-1885), Spain
Nick Holonyak
The LED (light Emitting Diode)
(1928- ), USA
Nicolas Appert
Food Canning
1809; Massy, France
Nikola Tesla
The Induction Motor
Nils Bohlin
The Seatbelt
1958; for VolvoAB, Ghotenburg, Sweden
N. J. Conte
The Pencil
N. J. Conte, in 1795, successfully produced pencils, after the later famed Faber family of Nuremberg, Germany, failed to do so, by using a pulverized graphite base to create a substandard, crude prototype of a pencil. Conte's method, the basic recipe used by all pencil manufacturers today, differed from the failed Faber fiasco, as he ground graphite, mixed it with certain types of clay, pressed the "dough" into sticks, and finished them in a kiln. The Faber family followed suit, and achieved the fame and fortune that previously eluded it.
Ole Evinrude
The Marine Outboard Motor
1910; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; United States
Omar Brown and Don Peters
The Soda Can
1965; Dayton, Ohio; United States--with automatic opener
Otto Blathy
The Transformer
(1860-1939), Hungary
Otto Lilienthal
The Air Glider
(1848-1896), Germany
Otto Von Miller
The Power Line
Otto Wichterle
Modern Contact Lenses
(1913-1989), Czechoslovakia
Paul Winchell
The Artificial Heart
Technically not the first, but Winchell held the first patent on an artificial heart. (1922-2005), USA
Pearle B. Wait
Jell-O Gelatin Dessert
1897; United States
Percy LeBaron Spencer
The Microwave Oven
Peter Carl Goldmark
The Vinyl Record
(1906-1977), Hungary
Peter Durand
The Can
Peter Petroff
The Digital Wrist Watch
(1919-2004), Bulgaria
Philip Drinker
The Respiration Apparatus
1894-1972, American, the invention stemmed from research on methods of resuscitation for victims of gas poisoning and electric shock
Philippe Lebon
The Gas Fire
Ralph H. Baer
The Video Game Console
(1922-), German born American
Raymond Damadian
The MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Scanner
1972; Forest Hills, New York, United States
Ray Tomlinson
Reginald Fessenden
The Two-way Radio
(1866-1932), Canada
Reinhold Burger
The Thermos
1903; Berlin, Germany
Reuben H. Donnelly
The Yellow Pages
Founded 1886 as The Chicago Directory Company, later contracted with Bell System.
Reverend Dr Robert Stirling
The Stirling Engine
(1790-1878), Scotland
Richard and Betty James
The Slinky Toy
Richard Arkwright
The Spinning Frame
Richard Buckminster Fuller
The Geodesic Dome
1951; Forest Hills, New York; United States
Richard Drew
Scotch Tape
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt
1935; Teddington, Middlesex, United Kingdom
Robert Bower
The Self-aligned–gate MOSFET
(1936- ), USA. Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor. No relation to Boba or Jango.
Robert Goddard
The Liquid Fuel Rocket
(1882-1945), USA
Robert Hooke
The Balance Wheel
(1635-1703), England
Robert Jarvik
The Artificial Heart
1977; Salt Lake City, Utah; United States
Robert Moog
The Moog Synthesizer
Roy Plunkett
1939; United States. Research chemist at DuPont. A mishap during Plunkett's research on refrigerants resulted in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin. Plunkett dropped his research project to develop the process of recreating PTFE, and Teflon was born. Strangely enough, the credit for this invention seems to have stuck to him.
Rudolf Diesel
The Diesel Engine
(1858-1913). High pressure, no spark. Sounds like my marriage.
Rudolf Hell,
The Hellschreiber
(1901-2002), Germany. Precursor to the fax machine.
Ruth Handler
The Barbie Doll
1959. Co-founder of Mattel. Also designed a prosthetic breast.
Salvino D'Armate
In 1284, Italy. The inventor of eyeglasses can be debated, but D'Armate's headstone says he did. If it's engraved in stone, it must be true.
Samuel Crompton
The Spinning Mule
Helped revolutionize the cotton industry. During its development, Crompton was forced to dismantle his invention in order to avoid backlash from local workers, who rejected the mechanization of the industry.
Samuel Morse
The Morse Alphabet
1838. Some people credit an assistant Alfred Vail as the inventor.
Samuel P. Langley
The Bolometer
(1834-1906), USA. Measures the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.
Sam Williams
The Fan Jet Engine
1921, American, it was patented in 1968
Selman Waksman
Russian, he revolutionized medicine and saved the lives of countless tuberculosis patients with Streptomycin, a powerful antibiotic
Simon Sunatori
The Sunatori Pen
(1959-), Canada Now called the MagneScribe Pen, a three-in-one auto-retractable ball-point pen. A clock, mirror and pen combination that is worn as a pendant. Sunatori used magnets to get the pen to automatically extend and retract.
Sir Charles Wheatstone
The Concertina
(1802-1875), England. A small accordion-like instrument. It was developed in 1829 and 1830 by Sir Charles Wheatstone after several years of building prototypes, a few of which still exist (in 1829 he patented its direct predecessor, the Symphonium, but he did not actually patent the concertina itself until 1844).
Sir Charles Wheatstone
The Playfair Cipher
The Playfair cipher was developed for telegraph secrecy and it was the first literal digraph substitution cipher. It was used by British forces in the Boer War and World War I and also by the islands of Coastwatching in Australia during World War II.
Sir Charles Wheatstone
The Stereoscope
1838. The first real stereographer was Sir Charles Wheatstone, who made geometric drawings and the device to view them so that they appeared to be three-dimensional.
Sir Rowland Hill
Postage Stamps
1795 - 1879 England. 1840 - pushed his prepaid postage program through government bureaucracy.
Sir Sandford Fleming
Universal Standard Time
(1827-1915), Canada. A 24-hour clock based on the Greenwich meridian. There's a problem solver - he missed a train and so made the planet change to his clock!
Sir William Siemens
The Open-hearth Furnace
(1823-1883). Used the regenerative principle in his design to increase efficiency. His furnace soon found its place in many industrial applications.
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala
The Mechanical Pencil
(1871-1922), Croatia. Created the "Automatic Pencil" in 1906.
Spede Pasanen
The Ski Jumping Sling
(1930-2001), Finnish film director. The sling is used to train ski jumpers.
Squire Whipple
The Iron Truss Bridge
1804-1888, American, his work on iron bridges contributed towards the development of the railroad industry in the U.S.
Stephanie Louise Kwolek & Paul Winthrop Morgan
1963; Delaware & Pennsylvania; United States
Stephen Perry
The Rubber Band
Using vulcanized rubber.
Stephen Poplawski
The Kitchen Blender
1922. It changed bartending forever.
Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
The Apple Computer
Released the Apple I computer 1 April 1976.
Stewart Adams
The Syrians
Glass Blowing
100 b.c.
Taqi Al-Din
The Steam Turbine
(1526-1585), Syria/Egypt
Theodore Maiman
The First Working Laser
Theophilus Von Kannel
The Revolving Door
1888; United States
Theophil Wilgodt Odhner
The Odhner Arithmometer
(1845–1903), Sweden, a mechanical calculator. An improved version of earlier arithmometer.
Thomas Davenport
An Electric Motor
1834; United States
Thomas Sullivan
The Tea Bag
1920s; United States
Thomas Wedgwood
The Modern Photograph
(1771-1805), England
Tim Berners-Lee
The World Wide Web
1990 invented at CERN in Switzerland
Tipu Sultan
The Iron Rocket
(1750-1799), India
Tivadar Puskas
The Telephone Exchange
(1844-1893), Hungary
Trevor Baylis
The Wind-up Radio
(1937-), UK
Valdemar Poulsen
The Arc Transmitter
Valdemar Poulsen
The Telegraphone
1898; Copenhagen, Denmark. The telegraphone was the first practical apparatus for magnetic sound recording and reproduction. It was an ingenious apparatus for recording telephone conversations. It recorded, on a wire, the varying magnetic fields produced by a sound. The magnetized wire could then be used to play back the sound.
Wallace Hume Carothers
1937; Wilmington, Delaware; United States
Walter Hunt
The Safety Pin
Whitcomb Judson
The Zipper
(1836-1909), USA Whitcomb is most famous for inventing the forerunner of the modern zipper in 1893, which he called the clasp-locker.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
The X-ray Machine
(1845-1923), Germany
Wilhelm Fein
The Portable Electric Drill
Willard Frank Libby
Radiocarbon Dating
(1908-1980), USA In 1960, Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for leading the team (namely, post-doc James Arnold and graduate student Ernie Anderson, with a $5,000 grant) that developed Carbon-14 dating. He also discovered that tritium could be used for dating water, and therefore wine.
Willem Einthoven
The Electrocardiogram
(1860-1927), The Netherlands
Willem Johan Kolff
The Artificial Kidney Hemodialysis Machine
(1911-), Netherlands
William A Burt
The Typographer
Predecessor of the modern typewriter
William Cullen
The Artificial Refrigerator
(1710-1790), UK
William Cumberland Cruikshank
Chlorinated Water
(1745-1800), UK
William Friese-Greene
(1855-1921), England
William George Armstrong
The Hydraulic Crane
(1810-1900), UK
William H. Dobelle
The Functioning Artificial Eye
(1943-2004), United States. The artificial eye is a brain implant which transmits filmed images into the visual cortex, allowing blind patients to see outlines.
William Henry Gates III
The Windows Operating System
(1955-), chief architect of Visual Basic
William Murdoch
Gas Lighting
(1754-1839), Scotland
William Oughtred
The Slide Rule
UK 1621
William Robert Grove
The Fuel Cell
(1811-1896), Wales
William Stanley
The Induction Coil
Willis Carrier
Air Conditioning
Wilson Greatbatch
The Heart Pacemaker
1919, American, his original pacemaker patent has led to heart patient survival rates comparable to that of a healthy population of similar age
Yi Xing
An Escapement Mechanism
(683-727), China,
Zacharias Janssen
The Microscope
Netherlands 1590 Assisted by his father Hans
Zhang Heng
The Hydraulic-powered Armillary Sphere
(78-139), China

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