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Giants of Progressive Science

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"Giants of Progressive Science" refers to those from history, some known, some not, who discovered or refined a scientific discipline, or performed a singular act that progressed, or even propelled, our understanding of the world, the universe, and the natural laws that apply.

94 facts:

Abū Rayhān Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Bīrunī
   was   
The First Practising Geologist
Born 973 CE, died 1048 CE
Albert Einstein
   was   
The Creator of the General Theory of Relativity
In 1915 CE -- Born 1879 CE, died 1955 CE It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics. It unifies special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, and describes gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime.
Albert Einstein
   was   
The Creator of the Special Theory of Relativity
In 1905 CE -- Born 1879 CE, died 1955 CE Special relativity incorporates the principle that the speed of light is constant. As we near the speed of light time slows down.
Alessandro Volta
   was   
The Developer of the Self-contained Electric Cell
Born 1745 CE, died 1827 CE
Alessandro Volta
   was   
A Major Contributor to Electrochemical Theory
Born 1745 CE, died 1827 CE
Alessandro Volta
   was   
A Major Contributor to Electromotive Theory
Born 1745 CE, died 1827 CE
Alfred Wegener
   was   
The Proposer of the Theory of Plate Tectonics
1915 CE -- Born 1880 CE, died 1930 CE
Anaximander
   was   
The Father of Cosmology
Born 610 BCE, died 546 BCE
Anaximander
   was   
The First to Suggest a Theory Similar to Natural Selection
Born 610 BCE, died 546 BCE
André-Marie Ampère
   was   
The Creator of Electrodynamics
Born 1775 CE, died 1836 CE
André-Marie Ampère
   was   
A Major Developer of Electromagnetic Theory
Born 1775 CE, died 1836 CE
Antoine-Laurent De Lavoisier
   was   
The Father of Modern Chemistry
Born 1743 CE, died 1794 CE
Antoine-Laurent De Lavoisier
   was   
A Major Contributor to the Law of Conservation of Mass
Born 1743 CE, died 1794 CE
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
   was   
The Father of Microbiology
Born 1632 CE, died 1723 CE
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
   was   
The First Microbiologist
Born 1632 CE, died 1723 CE
Aristarchus of Samos
   was   
The First to Suggest a Sun-centered Solar System
Born 310 BCE, died 230 BCE
Arno Penzias
   was   
The Co-discoverer of Microwave Background Radiation Associated With the Big Bang
Along with Robert Wilson -- Born 1933 CE
August Ferdinand Möbius
   was   
The Creator of the Möbius Function in Number Theory
Born 1790 CE, died 1868 CE -- Also invented the Möbius strip
August Ferdinand Möbius
   was   
The Introducer of Homogenous Coordinates in Projective Geometry
Born 1790 CE, died 1868 CE -- Also invented the Möbius strip
Charles Augustin De Coulomb
   was   
The Creator of Coulomb's Law
Born 1736 CE, died 1806 CE A law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles
Charles Augustin De Coulomb
   was   
The Discoverer of Electrostatic Phenomena
Born 1736 CE, died 1806 CE
Charles Darwin
   was   
The Creator of the Theory of Natural Selection
Published as Origin of the Species -- Born 1809 CE, died 1882 CE
Christiaan Huygens
   was   
A Developer of Modern Calculus
Born 1629 CE, died 1695 CE
Christiaan Huygens
   was   
The Discoverer of Saturn's Moon Titan
Born 1629 CE, died 1695 CE
Christiaan Huygens
   was   
The First Academic That Considered Light As Waves
Born 1629 CE, died 1695 CE
Claudius Ptolemaeus
   was   
The Creator of the Earth-centered Model of the Solar System
Born after 83 CE, died 161 CE
Daniel Bernoulli
   was   
A Definer of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics Laws
Born 1700 CE, died 1782 CE
Daniel Bernoulli
   was   
A Pioneer in Statistical Probablity
Born 1700 CE, died 1782 CE
Democratus
   was   
The First to Suggest the Existence of Atomic Structure
Born 460 BCE, died 370 BCE
Edwin Hubble
   was   
The First Astronomer to Detect a Universal "red Shift"
Born 1889 CE, died 1953 CE
Eratosthenes
   was   
The First Who Correctly Calculated the Circumference of the Earth
He did so in 239 BCE -- Born 276 BCE, died 194 BCE
Ernest Rutherford
   was   
The Father of Nuclear Physics
Born 1871 CE, died 1937 CE
Ernest Rutherford
   was   
The Pioneer of the "orbital" Theory of the Atom
Born 1871 CE, died 1937 CE
Euclid of Alexandria
   was   
The Father of Geometry
Fl. 300 BCE
Euclid of Alexandria
   was   
The Writer of Euclid's Elements
Fl. 300 BCE
Francis Crick
   was   
The Co-discoverer of the Structure of DNA
Along with James Watson -- Born 1916 CE, died 2004 CE
Friedrech Wilhelm Bessel
   was   
The First to Use Parallax to Calculate the Distance to a Star
Born 1784 CE, died 1846 CE
Galileo Galilei
   was   
The Father of Modern Physics
Born 1564 CE, died 1642 CE
Georges Cuvier
   was   
The Creator of Paleontology
Born 1769 CE, died 1832 CE
Georg Simon Ohm
   was   
The Creator of Ohm's Law
I = V over R -- Born 1789 CE, died 1854 CE
Georg Simon Ohm
   was   
The Definer of the Relationship Between Electrical Voltage, Current, and Resistance
Born 1789 CE, died 1854 CE
Gottried Liebniz
   was   
The Creator of the Binary Number System
Born 1646 CE, died 1716 CE
Gottried Liebniz
   was   
The Inventor of the Current Method of Calculus
Born 1646 CE, died 1716 CE
Gregor Mendel
   was   
The Father of Genetic Theory
Born 1822 CE, died 1884 CE
Hans Christian Ørsted
   was   
The Discoverer of Electromagnetic Phenomena
In 1820 -- Born 1777 CE, died 1851 CE
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
   was   
The First to Demonstrate the Existence of Electromagnetic Waves
Born 1857 CE, died 1894 CE
Henri Becquerel
   was   
A Co-discoverer of Radioactivity
Along with Marie and Pierre Curie -- Born 1852 CE, died 1908 CE
Henry Cavendish
   was   
The Discoverer of Hydrogen
Born 1731 CE, died 1810 CE
Ibn Al-Haytham
   was   
The Creator of the Book of Optics
1011 CE to 1021 CE -- Born 965 CE, died 1039 CE And inventor of the Scientific Method
Ibn Al-Haytham
   was   
Inventor of the Scientific Method
And writer of the 'Book of Optics'. Born 965 CE, died 1039 CE
Isaac Newton
   was   
The Describer of Universal Gravitation and the Three Laws of Motion
In his 1687 publication the ]Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'
Isaac Newton
   was   
The Writer of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica
Published in 1687 -- Born 1643 CE, died 1727 CE In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
James Dewey Watson
   was   
The Co-discoverer of the Structure of DNA
Along with Francis Crick -- Born 1928 CE
James Prescott Joule
   was   
A Co-discoverer of the Theory of Relationship Between Heat and Motion (conservation of Energy)
Born 1818 CE, died 1889 CE
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
   was   
The Inventor of the Chemical Structure Notation System
Born 1779 CE, died 1848 CE
Johannes Diderik Van Der Waals
   was   
The Refiner of Thermodynamic Laws Relating to the State of Gases and Liquids
Born 1837 CE, died 1923 CE
Johannes Kepler
   was   
The Discoverer of the Three Laws of Planetary Motion (planetary Mechanics)
Born 1571 CE, died 1630 CE
Johannes Kepler
   was   
The Theoritician That Ushered in the Modern Scientific Era
Born 1571 CE, died 1630 CE
John Dalton
   was   
The Creator of Basic Atomic Structure Theory
Born 1766 CE, died 1844 CE
Joseph Lister
   was   
The Developer of Antiseptic Wound Treatment
Born 1827 CE, died 1912 CE
Joseph Lister
   was   
The First Promoter of Surgical Instrument Sterilisation
Born 1827 CE, died 1912 CE
Joseph Von Fraunhofer
   was   
The Inventor of Stellar Spectroscopy
Born 1787 CE, died 1826 CE
Lorenzo Avogadro
   was   
The Inspiration for Avogadro's Number or 6.02214199x10^23
Avogadro's Number = The number of elementary particles in one "mole" of a substance -- Born 1776 CE, died 1856 CE
Lorenzo Avogadro
   was   
A Major Contributor to the Theory of Molarity (substance Amount Per Volume)
Born 1776 CE, died 1856 CE
Lorenzo Avogadro
   was   
A Major Contributor to the Theory of Molecular Weight
Born 1776 CE, died 1856 CE
Louis Pasteur
   was   
The Introducer of Disease Germ Theory
Born 1822 CE, died 1895 CE
Louis Pasteur
   was   
The Inventor of the Pasteurisation Process
Born 1822 CE, died 1895 CE
Ludwig Boltzman
   was   
The Developer of Statistics Relative to Mechanics and Thermodynamics
Born 1827 CE, died 1912 CE -- His headstone reads "S = K. log. W."
Ludwig Boltzman
   was   
A Major Contributor to Kinetic Theory
Born 1827 CE, died 1912 CE -- His headstone reads "S = K. log. W."
Marie Curie
   was   
A Co-discoverer of Radioactivity
First female Nobel Prize winner in 1903 CE -- Born 1867 CE, died 1934 CE
Marie Curie
   was   
The Discoverer of Polonium and Radium
First female Nobel Prize winner in 1903 CE -- Born 1867 CE, died 1934 CE
Max Planck
   was   
The Creator of the Quantum Theory Hypothesis
Proposed in 1900 -- Born 1858 CE, died 1947 CE
Michael Faraday
   was   
The Designer of Practical Applications Associated With Electromagnetic Theory
Born 1791 CE, died 1867 CE
Nicolas Sadi Carnot
   was   
The Father of Thermodynamic Theory
Born 1796 CE, died 1832 CE
Nicolaus Copernicus
   was   
The Creator of the Sun-centered Model of the Solar System
Born 1473 CE, died 1543 CE -- His work was based on Aristarchus of Samos
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevski
   was   
The Developer of Non-Euclidean Geometry
Born 1792 CE, died 1856 CE
Pierre Curie
   was   
A Co-discoverer of Radioactivity
Husband and collaberator to Marie Curie -- Born 1859 CE, died 1906 CE
Pierre Curie
   was   
The Discoverer of the Piezoelectric Effect
Husband and collaberator to Marie Curie -- Born 1859 CE, died 1906 CE
Pythagoras
   was   
The Creator of the Pythagorean Theorem Relative to Right Triangles
Born between 580 and 572 BCE, died between 500 and 490 BCE
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden
   was   
A Major Contributor to the Development of Audio Radio Transmission
Born 1866 CE, died 1932 CE
René-Just Haüy
   was   
The Inventor of the Laws of Geometrical Crystallization
Born 1743 CE, died 1822 CE
Robert Boyle
   was   
The Creator of Boyle's Law
Born 1627 CE, died 1691 CE. A major contributor to modern chemistry
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen
   was   
A Pioneer in Emmission Spectroscopy, Gas Analysis & Photochemistry
Yes, he invented the bunsen burner -- Born 1811 CE, died 1899 CE
Robert Wilson
   was   
The Co-discoverer of Microwave Background Radiation Associated With the Big Bang
Along with Arno Penzias -- Born 1936 CE
Rosalind Franklin
   was   
The Collector of Data That Led to the Discovery of DNA Structure
Evidence suggests that she may have first postulated the double-helix. Born 1920 CE, died 1958 CE
Thales of Miletus
   was   
The First Theorist to Suggest Non-theistic Explanations for Natural Phenomena
Born 624 BCE, died 546 BCE
Tycho Brahe
   was   
The Collector of Data Associated With the Laws of Planetary Motion
He wore a gold fake nose. He lost his real nose in a duel in 1566 CE -- Born 1546 CE, died 1601 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of Infrared Radiation
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of the Planet Uranus
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of Saturn's Moon Enceladus
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of Saturn's Moon Mimas
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of Uranus' Moon Oberon
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
William Herschel
   was   
The Discoverer of Uranus' Moon Titania
Born 1738 CE, died 1822 CE
Wolfgang Pauli
   was   
The Introducer of "spin" Theory in Early Quantum Mechanics
Born 1900 CE, died 1958 CE


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