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   has the capital   
In 1747 Kabul became part of an independent Afghan state, and in the 1770s it replaced Qandahar as the capital of Afghanistan.
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It became the capital of Albania in 1920 and during World War II was occupied (1939-1944) by Axis forces. It is the largest city and the principal commercial, manufacturing, and cultural center of the country.
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2.9 million inhabitants (2003 estimate), and the largest and most important city of the country. January 1957, Algiers became the centre of activity in the Algerian war of Independence. In 1962 Algiers became the capital of free Algeria. Most of the French inhabitants left Algiers.
American Samoa
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Pago Pago
Not an independent UN member state, but ~American. Pago Pago remains a small town with less than 4000 residents. Pago retains its clapboard buildings and red light district so romantically written about by Somerset Maughan in his book Rain.
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Andorra La Vella
Andorra la Vella is about half the size of New York City, with a population of 81,222 in 2006. Andorra is the last independent survivor of the March states, a number of buffer states created by Charlemagne to keep the Muslim Moors from advancing into Christian France.
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On February 20, 1575, carrying credentials from King D. Sebastiao, Paulo Dias de Novais landed at the island of Luanda in command of a fleet of seven ships carrying a hundred families of colonists and 400 soldiers. In 1605, the Governor, Manuel Cerveira Pereira, conferred the status of city on the settlement of Sao Paulo, making Luanda the first city to be founded by Europeans on the West Coast of sub-Saharan Africa.
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The Valley
The Valley is the principal town and the administrative centre of the island. Noted for its easygoing atmosphere and magnificent beaches and waters, Anguilla is a popular tourist destination.
Antigua and Barbuda
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Saint John's
In the 18th cent. St. John's served as a headquarters for the Royal Navy in the West Indies. St. John's population is 23,500
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Buenos Aires
In September 20, 1880, the Federalization of the City of Buenos Aires was passed, which implied that all income from customs rights at the city harbor would remain in the hands of the National State.
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Yerevan has a long-long history of thousands of years, dating back to the rise of oldest civilizations in the world. After the unification of Eastern Armenia with Russia in 1828, Yerevan became the center of the Yerevan province. The city kept on growing and on the turn of the century it occupied a territory of some 102 sq.km with a population of 30000 people.
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The area which would eventually become Oranjestad was originally settled by the Arawak Indians. Traveling north from a number of settlements in South America, the Arawak Indians settled in Oranjestad at the beginning of the millennium and thrived in the area for nearly fifteen hundred years before the area was touched by European exploration.
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On 12 March 1913, Canberra was formally named at the laying of a foundation stone on Capital Hill. Griffin arrived in October as Federal Director of Design and Construction - development of the city was ready to begin.
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Settlements along the Danube near what is now the City of Vienna can be traced back to the 5th century B.C. In 1922, the city was made a province in its own right. In 1938 Austria was "annexed" to Hitler Germany and ceased to exist as a state. Most of Vienna's Jewish population was driven away or exterminated After the end of the Second World War and many years of Allied occupation, Austria regained its independence with the state treaty signed in 1955.
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The history of the city of Baku goes back to the great antiquity, though the exact date of its rise is not known up to now. The archeological excavations carried out in the city of Baku and its vicinities prove the existence of the settlement here before our era.
The Bahamas
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New Providence is the island home of Nassau, and it is located in the middle of the Bahamas archipelago of over 700 islands.
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In 1958 Manama was declared free port. In 1971 Manama became capital of independent Bahrain.
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Dhaka has a population of 11 million, making it the largest city in Bangladesh. Dhaka is known as the 'City of Mosques'. The modern city was developed chiefly under British rule in the 19th century, and soon became the second-largest city in Bengal after Calcutta.
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Initially, the town was known as "Indian Bridge" because of the bridge constructed over river Careenage by the Indians. Later on, name of the city changed to St. Michael, before changing over to Bridgetown in 1654 when a new bridge was constructed here to replace the old one.
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There is no exact historical record for the date when Minsk was founded. It was first mentioned (as Mensk) in the Primary Chronicle in 1067.
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Brussels is first mentioned in a 7th-century manuscript. The traditional year of the establishment of Brussels is said to be 580, when Saint Géry (or Saint Gorik), the Bishop of nearby Cambrai made a narrow escape from the Forest of Soignes through which he was travelling, and decided to build a chapel to the site. The settlement grew into a significant village and in the 9th century developed into a town.
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After Hurricane Hattie destroyed almost 75% of houses and business in Belize the goverment proposed to encourage and promote the building of a new capital city. In 1962, a committee chose the site now known as Belmopan the first phase of the new city was completed in 1970
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Porto-Novo = official capitalCotonou = seat of government. Porto-Novo was probably founded in the late 16th century by the legendary King Te-Agdanlin of Allada. It was originally developed as a port for the slave trade.
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It is named after Henry Hamilton. He was British Lieutenant Governor and then full Governor here from 1788 to 1794 and got this municipality started. On January 23 1815, the town of Hamilton became the capital of Bermuda.
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Sucre = legal capital and seat of judiciaryLa Paz = seat of government. 1825 independence was declared and a new republic was born under the name Bolivia after its liberator Simón Bolivar. On August 11th, the name of the city of La Plata was changed to Sucre in honor of Mariscal Antonio Jose de Sucre, who along with Bolivar, fought for independence from Spanish rule.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Sarajevo region has been continuously inhabited by humans since the Neolithic age. Sarajevo as we know it today was founded by the Ottoman Empire in the 1450s upon conquering the region, with 1461 typically used as the city’s founding date.
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Gaborone is named after Chief Gaborone, who led his tribe to this area from the Magaliesberg round about 1880. 1966, At the time of independence, Botswana was counted among the ten poorest nations in the world. The discovery of the country's diamond wealth came within five years, and turned Botswana into one of the richest countries in Africa and the third largest producer of diamonds in the world.
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In 1922 The fundation stone of the future Federal Capital of the United States of Brazil is laid; near the city of Planaltina, in the outskirts of the present-day Federal District.
The British Virgin Islands
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Road Town
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Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan was formerly known as Brunei Town until the 3rd October 1970. The present site of Bandar Seri Begawan as it is today is quite new. The whole of the early settlement or the built-up area on this site was bombed flat by the Allied forces before the end of World War II.
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The name of the then-small settlement of Sofia arose from the Church of St. Sophia in the 6th century. Since the end of Communism in Bulgaria, Sofia has undergone a major face lift, cumulating with Bulgaria's entry into the EU on 1 January 2007, a momentous step for the city and the country.
Burkina Faso
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   has the capital   
In 1871, Stanley and Livingstone landed at Bujumbura and explored the Ruzizi River region. On 1 July 1962, Burundi became an independent kingdom headed by Mwami (King) Mwambutsa IV. He was deposed in July 1966 and was succeeded in September by his heir, Mwami Ntare V.
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Phnom Penh
After King Ponhea Yat abandoned Angkor in 1422, he founded his new capital and five wats at Phnom Penh. Later kings moved the capital several times and the city did not become the permanent seat of government until 1866. On April 17, 1975, Phnom Penh fell to the Khmer Rouge and was completely evacuated. People began to return in 1979 and have been rebuilding ever since.
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After the war, under a 28 June 1919 League of Nations mandate, France was awarded administration of Eastern Cameroon and Britain the Western strip bordering Nigeria from the sea to Lake Chad.
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Temperate has ranged from a record high of 37.8 °C in the summers of 1986 and 2001 to a record low of -38.9 °C in 1933
Cape Verde
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In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the transatlantic slave trade. The first population settlement was established at the Port of Praia with people from the villages of Ribeira Grande in 1515. Praia became the capital in 1770
The Cayman Islands
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George Town
The Cayman Islands were first sighted by European explorers on 10 May, 1503, owing to a chance wind that blew Christopher Columbus' ship off course. George Town is the largest offshore banking center in the world with more than 500 banks. in 1953 the first commercial bank was opened, Barclays Bank.
The Central African Republic
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An outpost was established at Bangui, to 1900, as part of a plan to link French colonies from the Atlantic to the Nile.
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N'Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by the French commander Émile Gentil on May 29 1900. The name was changed to N'Djamena by the President François Tombalbaye on April 6, 1973. It was changed to make it more African.
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The name Santiago goes back to the Apostle James (Saint James = Santiago). Santiago began as a fortified encampment, known by the name Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura, the furthest-flung post of the Spanish empire. It was founded in 1541 by conquistador Pedro de Valdivia.
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It was in Tian'anmen Square on October 1st, 1949, that Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China, with Beijing as its capital.
Christmas Island
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The Settlement
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands
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West Island
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Bogotá was founded on the 6th of August 1538 by the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada who fough the Chibcha Indians near the site of the populous tribe center called Bacatá.
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In 1886 the Comoros became a French protectorate and in 1912 France officially proclaimed them colonies. Until the 1960s the islands were more or less totally isolated from the world. France maintained a situation which forbade political organisation and a local press
The Cook Islands
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Avarua, the capital of the Cook Islands and Rarotonga's main town, lies in the middle of the northern coast. It is the country’s main administrative and commercial centre.
Costa Rica
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San Jose
In 1823 the city had become the capital of the newly independent country -- this came after a brief civil war over whether to remain independent (a view backed by residents of San José and Alajuela) or become a part of the Mexican empire (supported by the citizens of Cartago and Heredia). Following the victory of those favoring independence, the capital was moved from Cartago to San José.
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The oldest part of Zagreb are the two hills, Gradec and Kaptol. Unfortunately the Mongols swept through in 1242 and destroyed everything. It wasn't until the 17th century that the two towns merged and became Zagreb. In 1991 Croatia became independent and Zagreb became the capital of the new country.
Côte D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
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Yamoussoukro = official capital Abidjan = commercial and administrative center
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In 1514 conquistador Pánfilo de Narváez founded a settlement named after a local Indian chief, San Cristóbal de Habana. The settlement had to be moved a number of times because of mosquito infestations, but settled on the west side of Havana bay in 1519.
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Nicosia was first inhabited over 5000 years ago. Till the Middle Ages the city was only known by the Greek name of Lefkosia; when Cyprus came under Latin rule it was renamed Nicosia
The Czech Republic
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The Prague Castle was founded around 880 by prince Bořivoj of the Premyslid dynasty. 1355 Prague becomes the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. The Austro-Hungarian empire falls in 1918 and Prague becomes the capital of independent Czechoslovakia. Czech Republic and Slovakia split into 2 countries on January 1,1993. Prague becomes the capital of the Czech Republic.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Anglo-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley founded Kinshasa in 1881 as a trading depot on the Congo River.
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Copenhagen was founded by Bishop Absalon (1128-1201), who was at that time the counsellor for King Valdemar I (1131-1182 - Ruled Denmark 1154–57 as Valdemar the Great). The capital was hit by the bubonic plague in 1711, nearly one-third of the population had died from this highly infectious disease.
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Three European colonial powers--Spain, France, and the Great Britain--and several minor ones ruled the Caribbean from the 16th to the early 20th century. Genocide was committed on the Native American cultures. Estimates of the Indian population of the Caribbean islands in 1492 when Columbus arrived range from 225,000 to six million. Presently only few thousand of them live on the mainland South America and in Dominica
The Dominican Republic
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Santo Domingo
Bartholomew Columbus, brother of Christopher Columbus, founded Santo Domingo, which is today the oldest European city founded by Europeans in the New World. In reality the city dates back to 1496, the period when the first Europeans settled there, although officially it was founded on August 5, 1498.
East Timor
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Dili was settled about 1520 by the Portuguese, who made it the capital of Portuguese Timor in 1769. During World War II, Dili was occupied by the Japanese.
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The Spanish conquistadors founded the city with 204 settlers, on the 6th of December in 1534. Quito history starts long before 1534, date of the Spanish foundation. Although pre-Hispanic traces disappeared with the conquistadors' arrival, it has been said that before the Europeans arrived, Rumiñahui, an indigenous warrior, set the city on fire and destroyed the temples of the Incas who lived there.
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With one of the few river crossings, the area around Cairo was originally settled in Paleolithic times and later saw the development of Neolithic trading communities. Legend has it that when Amr departed the Babylon area to lay siege to Alexandria, he left his tent standing in the tent camp next to Babylon. Upon his return, the tent was still standing and a dove had built a nest in it. So it was here that Amr built his Mosque, the first in Egypt, and around the Mosque, Fustat or al-Fustat al-Misr (the Camp of Egypt), the City of the Tents and the original Muslim capital of Egypt grew up from his original tent encampment to finally become Cairo.
El Salvador
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San Salvador
Until 1980 all but one Salvadoran temporary president was an army officer. Periodic presidential elections were seldom free or fair.
Equatorial Guinea
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In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established with status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. As the Spanish Equatorial region, it was ruled by a governor general exercising military and civilian powers. The first local elections were held in 1959, and the first Equatoguinean representatives were seated in the Spanish Parliament.
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Although it would be easy to think of Asmara, the Eritrean capital, solely as an Italian built colonial city, its origins actually reach back some 700 years. Originally, it is said, there were four clans living in the Asmara area on the Kebessa Plateau. Asmara was made the capital city of colonial Eritrea in preference to Massawa by Governor Martini in 1897.
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The early history of Tallinn begins from suburban Iru, where a castle together with a nearby settlement was built in the end of the first millennium. The castle was abandoned for unknown reasons in the end of the 11th century. The trade route in the Gulf of Finland became more widely used during the 9th and 10th century and thereby increased the importance of the Tallinn port site. Tallinn Develops into Estonian Town. Tallinn as Capital of the Republic of Estonia in 1918-1940
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According to tradition, the people of the present Swazi nation migrated south before the 16th century to what is now Mozambique. Following a series of conflicts with people living in the area of modern Maputo, the Swazis settled in northern Zululand in about 1750. In the early years of colonial rule, the British had expected that Swaziland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa. After World War II, however, South Africa's intensification of racial discrimination induced the United Kingdom to prepare Swaziland for independence.
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Addis Ababa
In 1881, the powerful emperor Emperor Menelik II and his followers moved to the foothills of the Entotto mountains near present day Addis Ababa. In November 1886, while Menelik was off in a distant corner of the empire, his wife Taytu moved the encampment from the hills down onto the current site of Addis Ababa. She reportedly left the Entotto mountain camp because of the unpleasantly cool temperatures at that high elevation and was drawn to the site of Addis. Upon his return, Menelik apparently became fond of the new location and in 1892 named the settlement, Addis Ababa, proclaiming it the new and permanent capital of the Ethiopian Empire.
The Falkland Islands
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Not an independent UN member state, but ~British & disputed by Argentina
The Faroe Islands
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Since the early days of viking settlement more than one thousand years ago, the Faroese have met and held their parliament or "Thing" in Tórshavn. Tórshavn is said to be perhaps the smallest capital in the world (approx. 15,000 inhabitants)
The Federated States of Micronesia
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Until the end of the 19th century, the islands were under Spanish colonial administration. 1947, following World War II, the four states of the FSM came under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The FSM became an independent state and joined the UN in September 1991
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In earlier times the Fiji Islands were known as the "Cannibal Islands". The first known European to sight the Fiji islands was the Dutchman Abel Tasman in 1643. European missionaries whalers traders and deserters settled during the first half of the 19th century. Fiji was readmitted into the Commonwealth of Nations as a republic in 1994.
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In 1550 Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav Vasa.
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Paris is more than 2,000 years old. Gauls of the Parisii tribe settled there between 250 and 200 BC and founded a fishing village on an island in the river that is the present-day Ile de la Cité -- the center around which Paris developed.
French Guiana
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The Arawak Indians are the people first known to inhabit French Guiana. The French were the first Europeans to settle in French Guiana. They arrived in the early 1600s. In 1634 the French settled again and this time they did not leave. Cayenne was founded as the capital some time later and it has remained the country's largest city.
French Polynesia
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As early as 1843, after the annexation of Tahiti by France, Admiral Bruat had advised the government to choose Papeete as the capital.
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Libreville is the capital of Gabon. The region was first inhabited by the Pongoue (Mpongwe) people after the 16th century, who were in turn, followed by the Fang. Ultimately, the French built a port in the region in 1843 and in 1949, named a group of Pongoue villages Libreville.
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Banjul, formerly Bathurst is not only the capital city of Gambia but also its Atlantic port. Banjul became the capital of the British colony and protectorate of Gambia. After 1947 it was governed by a town council and when Gambia attained independence in 1965, the town was granted city status and became the national capital. Its name was changed to Banjul in 1973.
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In the 11th century King Bagrat III united the Georgian principalities into one kingdom, with the exception of T’bilisi, which was an emirate (territory ruled by an emir, or Turkish prince) under the control of Seljuk Turks. In 1122 King David II, one of Bagrat’s descendents, expelled the Turks and recovered T’bilisi. Under Queen Tamar, whose rule straddled the 12th and 13th centuries, the Georgian kingdom reached its zenith and grew to include most of Caucasia.
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There is no known date of foundation of Berlin. In its early history, there existed a twin-town situation - Berlin lay on the East bank of the Spree and Cölln lay on the west bank. These towns are first mentioned in historical documents in the 1200s, and there is no evidence of the Slav fishing village that is often mentioned in some sources
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Accra was first settled at the end of the sixteenth century when the Ga people migrated there after leaving their previous settlement at Ayawso, ten miles north of Accra. The boundaries of Accra were stretch further in 1908 as the bubonic plaque resulted in the founding of two new neighborhoods (exclusively for Africans)
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The Greek city that was the center of culture and learning during ancient times
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Nuuk was founded in 1721 by Hans Egede, a Norwegian missionary. Otherwise known as Godthaab.
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Saint George's
The Arawak Indians were the first to inhabit Grenada, but they were all eventually massacred by the Carib Indians. When Columbus arrived in 1498, he encountered the Caribs, who continued to rule over the island for another 150 years. The French gained control of the island in 1672 and held on to it until 1762, when the British invaded. Black slaves were granted freedom in 1833. After more than 200 years of British rule, most recently as part of the West Indies Associated States, Grenada became independent on Feb. 7, 1974, with Eric M. Gairy as prime minister.
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French colonization began in 1635, and in 1674 Guadeloupe became part of the domain of France. In 1946, it became an overseas department of France.
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Even before Spanish settlers arrived in the sixteenth century, the city of Hagatna Guam was a central location for the Chamorro people of Guam. Hagatna Guam was formerly known as Agana, but in 1998 the spelling was changed to more closely match the Chamorro pronunciation. In 1668, the first Spanish missionary to arrive on the island, Padre San Vitores, made his way to the city known today as Hagatna.
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Saint Peter Port
1803 The first station on the island was established at St Sampson’s with a lifeboat built by Henry Greathead. Guernsey’s capital has been a busy entrepôt since Roman times. Her deep, safe anchorage and relative remoteness from France made St Peter Port the Channel Islands’ premier port, graced by the wealth of ship builders, privateers and merchant adventurers. Georgian and Regency styles were enriched by an influx of French emigrés, including Victor Hugo, whose influences included Parisian-style urinoirs.
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Following Portuguese exploration in the 15th century, Portuguese Guinea finally became a colony in 1897. War for independence started in 1960, and independence was achieved on 10 September 1974. (It was the first Portuguese colony to gain independence.)
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Guinea is partial heir to the series of west African empires that, at their height before the arrival of the Europeans. In 1974, the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG) was founded as a section of the new international African Democratic Rally (RDA), giving Ahmed Sekou Toure and his associates political power. The RDA broke with the communists in 1950, and Toure asserted that the Marxist doctrine of class struggle was inapplicable to Africa and that the movement must be freed of any vestige of European power. Guinea became an independent republic in 1958.
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In 1812 The town of Stabroek is renamed "Georgetown". In 1837 Georgetown has its first mayor and town council. In 1842 Georgetown is declared a city.
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Port-au-Prince was founded in 1749 by French sugar planters, in what was then the French colony of Saint-Domingue. In 1770, it became the capital, replacing Cap Français, and in 1804 it became the capital of newly-independent Haiti.
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Native Americans were already living in the area of present-day Tegucigalpa, and calling it by that name, when the first Europeans–Spanish miners–arrived in the middle of the 1500s. (September 29, 1578 is the traditional founding date of the city, but modern historians have determined that this date is contrived.) The city was named capital of Honduras in 1880.
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The Hungarians appeared here late 9th century. In the 18th century large-scale reconstruction works started both in Buda and in Pest. Soon the historical inner town was surrounded by fast growing outer districts. In 1873 the formerly separate but interdependent towns Buda, Pest and Óbuda were integrated into one administrative unit : Budapest.
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Iceland was settled by Norwegian and Celtic immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D. Ingolfur Arnarson – the first settler of Iceland – built his farm on the peninsula where Reykjavik stands today.Reykjavik received its town charter in 1786.
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New Delhi
Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. Having been the capital of several empires in ancient India. New Delhi was declared the capital of India after India gained independence from British rule in 1947
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The capital of Jakarta is one of 17,000 Indonesian islands. It is 90% Islamic and is the largest population of Muslims.The earliest recorded mention of Jakarta is as a port of origin that can be traced to a Hindu settlement as early as the 4th century. By the 14th century, it was a major port for the Hindu kingdom of Sunda. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 .
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The plan to make TehrAn the capital, first thought of by the Zands, was carried out by Agha Mohammad KhAne Qajar, who in the year 1785 A.D., proclaimed it his capital and bestowed on it the title of DAr ol KhelAfeh (the house of the caliphate).
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In 634 A.D., the newly-created Muslim empire expanded into the region of Iraq, which at the time was part of the Persian Empire. In about 762 A.D., the Abbasid dynasty took over rule of the vast Muslim world and moved the capital to the newly-founded city of Baghdad. Over the next five centuries, the city would become the world's center of education and culture.
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Dublin's official date of establishment was in 988 A.D. although evidence of it's existence dates back to the second century in which it was named Eblana. By the end of the 17th century a remarkable growth began with Protestant refugees from the European continent pouring into Dublin. After Independence, in 1916 Dublin became the political, economic, and cultural center of Ireland.
The Isle of Man
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The Manx may have contributed much to history, and have the oldest continuous parliament in the world but are negligible in terms of global territory and population. The saying that goes "80,000 drunks clinging to a rock" is slightly misleading butmaybe a truism during TT fortnight!
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Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950 though most embassies are in Tel Aviv.
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The Romans believed that their city was founded in the year 753 BC. Modern historians though believe it was the year 625 BC.
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Kingston was founded at the end of the 17th century as a refuge for survivors of a devastating earthquake that had hit Jamaica, and that all but destroyed Port Royal, a large town on the opposite side of the harbor.
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Ieyasu Tokugawa won the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, the most important battle in the history of Japan, and soon took control of the country. In 1603, he established his government in Edo. In 1868, the emperor moved to Edo and renamed the city to Tokyo. Thus, Tokyo became the capital of Japan both officially and substantially.
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Saint Helier
In 1649, from what was then the marketplace in St. Helier, Laurens Hamptonne proclaimed loyalty to Charles II, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The first such proclomation of allegiance in the British Isles. The capital town of Jersey is named after a Belgian monk.
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Amman is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. A recent excavation has uncovered buildings that include residences believed to have been built during the Stone Age around 7000 BC. Due to the discovery of artistic work in this excavated settlement, it is considered to be one of the most developed civilizations of its time. Throughout its history, Amman has been inhabited by several different civilizations, and has been included in many biblical references.
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Astana, the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1997.
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Nairobi was founded in the late 1890s as a British railroad camp on the Mombasa-to-Uganda railroad. From 1899 to 1905 it served as a British provincial capital. In 1905 the city became the capital of the British East Africa Protectorate (called Kenya Colony from 1920 to 1963). In 1963 Nairobi became the capital of independent Kenya.
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Bishkek was founded in 1846 as a fortress by the Khan of Kokand; it was captured by the Russians 1860–62, and became a town in 1878. During the Soviet period, it was made the administrative centre of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (1924)
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Vientiane was originally one of the early Lao valley meuang (city-states) that were consolidated around AD 1000. When Laos became a French protectorate in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Vientiane was named as the capital city.
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In 1201 Riga was first recorded as a town in the chronicles. By 1225 Riga was granted rights of a city.
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The original settlement of Beirut, first recorded by the Egyptians in the second millennium B.C.E., was located in the valley between the two hills. In 635 A.D.E, Beirut was captured and reconstructed by the Muslims. The city, was redesigned with fortification and surrounding city walls, was controlled by the Muslims of Damascus.
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The United Kingdom granted independence to the newly named Kingdom of Lesotho on 4 October 1966; Moshoeshoe II was proclaimed king on that date.
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1847- On July 26, The Liberian Declaration of Independence was adopted and signed. In it, Liberians charged their mother country, the United States, with injustices that made it necessary for them to leave and make new lives for themselves in Africa. They called upon the international community to recognize the independence and sovereignty of Liberia. Britain was one of the first nations to recognize the new country. The United States did not recognize Liberia until the American Civil War.
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Tripoli is now sole capital of Libya, a position the city shared with Benghazi from independence in 1951 until the 1970's.
   has the capital   
Vaduz is not only the seat of the authorities and the Parliament called the Diet, but also, since 1939, of the Princely Residence. The place was mentioned for the first time in a deed dating from 1150. The name Vaduz comes from the Rhaeto-Romanic language and dates from the time when the Romans ruled the province of Rhaetia.
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The honor for founding Vilnius is justly given to Gediminas (a Lithuanian Duke) in the year 1323. Having declared Vilnius his "royal town", Gediminas created the conditions for its subsequent growth as the political, economical and cultural center of Lithuania. On 16 February, 1918, Lithuanian Council in Vilnius proclaimed an independent Lithuanian Republic. In 1940, Vilnius became the capital of Soviet Lithuania.
   has the capital   
Scientists think that they date back to before 4,000 B.C. Actual evidence and records of the Skopje region date from the IV century B.C.
   has the capital   
Antananarivo was founded in about 1625 by King Andrianjaka and takes its name (the City of the Thousand) from the number of soldiers Andrianjaka assigned to guarding it
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In 1974, the capital of the country was formally moved from Zomba to Lilongwe.
   has the capital   
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur had its origins In the 1850s when the Malay Chief of Klang sent Chinese upriver to open new and larger tin mines. In 1880. in view of its strategic location, the Selangor state capital was moved from Klang to Kuala Lumpur. In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States.
The Maldives
   has the capital   
MALDIVES is an isolated nation and is among the smallest and poorest countries in the world. Maldives gained independence in 1965. The Second Republic was proclaimed in November 1968 under the presidency of Ibrahim Nasir.
   has the capital   
Bamako was noted as a centre for Islamic studies in the Mali empire of medieval times, but had declined to the size of a village by the time of French colonization in 1880. Regrowth of the city was stimulated by the opening of the railway to Dakar in 1904 and by its designation as the capital of French Sudan in 1905. When the country became independent in 1960, Bamako remained the capital.
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Pope Pius V and Philip II of Spain promised financial aid and the Pope lent the Knights the services of Francesco Laparelli, a military engineer, who drew up the necessary plans for the new city and its defences. Work started in earnest in March 1566 – first on the bastions and, soon after, on the more important buildings. The new city was to be called Valletta in honour of its founder, Grand Master La Vallette.
The Marshall Islands
   has the capital   
At least seven Spanish ships sailed through the Marshalls during the 16th century. Foreign visits resumed in 1788 when two British captains, John Marshall and Thomas Gilbert sailed into the islands aboard the ships Scarborough and Charlotte. In the late 1970s, while still under UN Trust status with the U.S., a growing desire for independence led the Marshalls to embark on an endeavor towards self-determination. This was eventually accomplished in 1986 when the country was transformed into a self-governing democracy in free association with the U.S.: the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
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In 1635 a small contingency of French colonizers arrived on the island. They settled on the northwestern portion of the island, later to become known as St. Pierre. As their numbers grew, the French made their way across the island defeating the fiercely resisting Caribs. About eight years after settling the island the last of the Caribs were brutally massacred in the area now known as Fort-de-France. Fort-de-France would soon become a major port as Martinique was the first stop for ships following the trade winds from Europe.
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In 1957 Nouakchott was selected to be the capital of Mauritania when it became an independent country. It is Sahara's largest city excluding marginal cases like Cairo and the cities north of the Atlas Mountains on Africa's northern coast.
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Port Louis
In 1736 the French named Port Louis after Louis XV, the king of France. French influence became part of the culture and lifestyle of the city. The population of the city is now largely made up of the descendants of laborers who were hired for labor from India in the 19th century.
   has the capital   
Mayotte was ceded to France along with the other islands of the Comoros group in 1843. It was the only island in the archipelago that voted in 1974 to retain its link with France and forego independence
   has the capital   
Mexico City
In 1821, Agustín de Iturbide, a Mexican general who switched sides to fight for independence, proclaimed himself emperor –-officially only as a temporary measure. His government lasted only 18 months; a revolt in 1823, led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, established the United Mexican States.
   has the capital   
Chisinau (Kishinev)
One can hardly find a city, that celebrated its 500-year anniversary twice, but Kishinev is the one: under the Romanians and in 1966 in the time of the Soviet power. It happened, because Kishinev was firstly mentioned in historical documents in 1436 in the official document of voivodes. Chisinau is also known as Kishinev
   has the capital   
Ulaanbaatar was founded in 1639 as the Da Khure Monastery, a Lamaist house of the Tibetan Buddhist religion which became the residence of the ‘bodgo-gegen’ or high priest. Mongolia became an independent state in 1911, with Urga as its capital, but in 1924 it became part of the USSR as the Mongolian Peoples' Republic, and the city was renamed Ulaanbaatar.
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Podgrica is one of the oldest settlements in this part of the Balkans. Montenegro became the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country after the end of the war even though it finished the war on the winning side. Moreover, following unification, Montenegro lost its official name and was administratively declared a region of Yugoslavia called Zeta (Zetska Banovina). Of all the constituent parts of this newly unified state, Montenegro had suffered conspicuously the greatest proportionate loss of life during World War I.
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Montserrat was first settled in 1632 by a British contingent from the mother colony of Saint Kitts. Although the original colonists were English and Irish, Montserrat quickly became a haven for Irish Catholics escaping from religious persecution. By 1705, a planter class, based on slave labor and sugar, was fully established. The planter class attempted to control and coerce the blacks, leading to several rebellions, including the Saint Patrick's Day rebellion of 17 March 1768.
   has the capital   
Rabat has been the capital city of the Moroccan kingdom since 1912.
   has the capital   
After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced.
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The present Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890 when Von Francois lay the foundation stone of the fort, which is known as the Alte Feste (Old Fortress). The German colonial era came to an end during World War I, the South African troops occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of Britain. With Namibia’s independence from the former South African Colonial Apartheid Regime, in 1990,The City became the seat of a first democratically elected government of the Republic of Namibia, headed by the head of state the president, Dr. Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma
   has the capital   
Kathmandu Valley was conquered by King Prithvi Narayan Shah and Kathmandu became the capital of the modern Nepal by 1769.
The Netherlands
   has the capital   
The Hague = seat of government. The residence of the monarchy and seat of government are also in The Hague.
Netherlands Antilles
   has the capital   
Located on Curacao, the largest of the islands; Not an independent UN member state, but ~Dutch. Note: the definite article is no longer in vogue with either land.
New Caledonia
   has the capital   
In 1774 Captain James Cook discovered the island on his way to New Zealand. It reminded him of the relief of Scotland (Caledonia) and thus he named it "New Caledonia". In 1853 the island was laid claim to by the French, under the reign of Napoléon NIII. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. in 1956 became an overseas territory of France.
New Zealand
   has the capital   
Originally Auckland was the capital, but in 1876 Wellington became capital as it is more central. It was named after the first Duke of Wellington. Wellington sits on a fault line and is prone to earthquakes, some quite severe. The city is often referred to as Windy Wellington.
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Managua was made permanent capital in 1855 to end the bitter feud between Granada and León. Managua was damaged by earthquake and fire in 1931 and by fire in 1936. On Dec. 23, 1972, it was almost completely destroyed in an earthquake that took more than 10,000 lives.
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The former capital was Lagos, it was transferred to Abuja in 1991.
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Niamey was a small town when the French colonized the area in the late 19th cent., but it grew after it became the capital of Niger in 1926.
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Norfolk Island
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Norfolk Island is the site of one of the earliest European settlements in the Southwest Pacific. On 6 March 1788, less than two months after the establishment of the colony of New South Wales, Lieutenant Philip Gidley King and 22 settlers (including 9 male and 6 female convicts) landed at what is now Kingston, Norfolk Island.
North Korea
   has the capital   
It is reputed to be the oldest city in Korea. The ancient capital of the legendary Tangun dynasty (2333 BC) was located on the site where, according to legend, the modern city of P'yongyang was founded in 1122 BC.
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The city of Oslo was founded long after the town had been developed by the Vikings. Recent archeological findings state that the city was founded year 1000.
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The History of Muscat dates back to the 1 st century AD when it was the concealed harbor from where frankincense was transported to Greece Rome and the Mediterranean. Khir Rouri was the center of trade which the Greeks called as Muscat.
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After Independence Karachi became the capital. It was later shifted to Rawalpindi in 1959. IN 1967 Islamabad became the capital.
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Japan occupied Palau from 1914 until the end of WWII. It was during this time that Palauan culture went through its greatest transformation. Koror was developed into a bustling modern city.
Papua New Guinea
   has the capital   
Port Moresby
Port Moresby is the modern capital of Papua New Guinea. Prior to WWII it was the administrative center of the Australian territory of Papua New Guinea. During the war it was the strategic objective of the Japanese forces during the Battle of Coral Sea and the overland through the infamous Kakoda Trail. Although Japanese invasion attempts were unsuccessful, the area was subjected to many air attacks. After the treat of invasion passed, the area became a major staging area and airfield for further operations.
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Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar founded Asuncion on the Feast Day of the Assumption August 15 1537. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province. Paraguay declared its independence by overthrowing the local Spanish authorities in May 1811.
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The city of Lima was founded by Spanish Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as the City of Kings. Today nearly one-third of the nation's population lives in this one metropolitan area with near 8 million inhabitants.
The Philippines
   has the capital   
In 1595, Manila was decreed to be the capital of the Archipelago
The Pitcairn Islands
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Pitcairn is accessible only by boat through Bounty Bay. There is no airstrip and no harbor. Only longboats visit (from visiting tourist ships). It is the only inhabited island of a group of four in the southern Pacific; part of an archipelago near French Polynesia. The island has a labor force of about 15 people. Most of the islanders are descendants of the "Bounty" mutineers. In September of 2003, the first baby was born on the island in 17 years.
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In 1413 The capital of Mazovia officially moved from Czersk to Warsaw.
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In 1755 an earthquake was a catalyst to the City being totally destroyed. After the Quake a huge 50ft Tsunami crashed through the city. As if that wasn't enough, lamps and cooking fires upset in the tumult ignited a fire storm that proved impossible to control. It burned unchecked for three days, completing the destruction. In all more than 60,000 people died in the disaster in Lisbon alone.
Puerto Rico
   has the capital   
San Juan
In 1508 Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement, Caparra, now known as Pueblo Viejo,A year later, the settlement was abandoned and moved to the site of what is now called Old San Juan.
   has the capital   
The city was founded as Al-bida in 1850. The city became the capital of the British protectorate Qatar in 1916.
The Republic of the Congo
   has the capital   
Founded on September 10, 1880 on the site of a village, the city was named Nkuna by an Italian explorer, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. The city was later named after him.
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St.-Denis was founded in the late 17th cent. as a French way station to Asia.
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Bucharest was founded by the Slav in the 9th century and was invaded by the Mongol in the 13th century but it still remained uninhabited till the 14th century. The city was first mentioned in the 15th . In the 17th century Bucharest became the largest city in the region.
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The reference to a Moscow, as to a town, is registrated in the old manuscript of 1147. In 1156, prince Yury Dolgoruky erected timber walls around Moscow with a moat. He is frequently regarded as a founder of Moscow, and his monument is among the most honored in Moscow.
   has the capital   
Kigali was part of German East Africa 1890–1916, when it was captured by allied forces during World War I. As part of the former Ruanda-Urundi territory, it came in trust under Belgian control 1919–62, when the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi were created.
Saint Helena
   has the capital   
The town was founded in 1659, when the English East India Company built a fort and established a garrison at the site on James Bay, naming it after the Duke of York (later James II)
Saint Kitts and Nevis
   has the capital   
Basseterre was founded in 1627 by the French, under Sieur Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc. When Phillipe de Longviliers de Poincy was made the French governor of St. Kitts in 1639, The town took off and was made Basseterre capital of the entire French West Indies colony. The city was made capital of the entire island of St. Kitts in 1727, following French expulsion from the island and full British control.
Saint Lucia
   has the capital   
Castries was founded by the French in 1650 and in 1814 came under British control. The town was rebuilt after being largely destroyed by fire in 1948 and, when St Lucia gained independence in 1979, Castries became the capital of the new state.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
   has the capital   
Not an independent UN member state, but ~French
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
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   has the capital   
Located on the northern coast of Upolu Island, with a population of 38,800 (2001). The nation's major port and only city.
Saudi Arabia
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In 1824 Riyadh became capital of the Saudi kingdom. Riyadh has one of the fastest growth rates of any city in the world
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In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakarou (which they called "Dakar") Dakar replaced Saint Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation from 1959 to 1960, after which it became the capital of Senegal.
   has the capital   
Belgrade is one of the oldest cities in Europe. Its history lasts full 7,000 years. The intensive development of Belgrade which started after its final liberation from the Turks continued in the first years of the XX century. Serbian army and parts of the Allies' army liberated Belgrade on November 1, 1918. During World War I, Serbia lost 28% of its whole population, while Belgrade was the most destroyed town in Serbia. In May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and Belgrade became the capital of the independent state of the Republic of Serbia.
   has the capital   
The Seychelles islands were captured and freed several times during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, then passed officially to the British under the 1814 Treaty of Paris. August 31, 1903, Seychelles became a separate British Crown Colony.
Sierra Leone
   has the capital   
In 1787, British philanthropists founded the "Province of Freedom" which later became Freetown, a British crown colony and the principal base for the suppression of the slave trade.
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In 500BC People of the Linear Ceramics Culture build the 1st archeologically proven settlement of the territory. In 1291 Bratislava is granted city privileges. In 1993 Slovakia becomes an independent state with Bratislava as the capital.
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Around the year 2000 BC, the Ljubljana Marshes were settled by lake dwellers. In 2002, the remains of the world's oldest wooden wheel, dating from between 3250 and 3100 BC, were found by archaeologists at the Ljubljana Marshes.
The Solomon Islands
   has the capital   
Honiara was built to replace the former capital of Tulagi at the end of that war. Honiara officially became the capital of the Solomon Islands in 1952.
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The city is known as Muqdisho in Somali. Mogadishu was established by Arab immigrants from the Persian Gulf, and was one of the earliest in the long range of Arab settlements all over the East African coast. In 1960 Somalia achieved independence with Mogadishu as its capital.
South Africa
   has the capital   
Cape Town = legislative center Bloemfontein = judicial center
South Korea
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The 2000 years illustrious history of the city has witnessed many rulers and rules governing the city.The dynamic city of South Korea have been its capital of Korean Peninsula ever since it was established. Seoul was first documented with the name of Wiryeseong as the capital of the Baekje dynasty in BC 18. Seoul developed as the first city in East Asia to have access to electricity, trolley cars, water, telephone, and telegraph systems simultaneously.
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The site of Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times. In the year 1329, King Fernando V assembled The Court of Madrid for the first time.
Sri Lanka
   has the capital   
Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago. However it was only made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815.
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In 1899 Khartoum became capital of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. On January 19, 1899 Britain and Egypt signed a condominium agreement under which the Sudan was to be administered jointly. In 1956 With the independence of Sudan, Khartoum became the capital of the country.
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The area was settled by the British in 1630, and in 1650 the city became the capital of the new English colony. The area changed hands often between the British and Dutch but was under Dutch rule from 1815 until the independence of Suriname in 1975. The citizens are chiefly of Asian Indian, indigenous, African, and Dutch descent.
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Longyearbyen is the only self-governing municipality in Svalbard, a remote Arctic island group with a recorded history that dates back more than 800 years.
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The old Stockholm was located on Helgeandsholmen which grew up during the 13th century. It was not long, however, until the city moved in between the bridges, and we know this part of the city as the Old Town. The name Stockholm is first heard of in the chronicle of Eric (Eriks krönikan), probably written between 1322 and 1332. According to this chronicle Stockholm was founded by Birger Jarl in 1252.
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Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, chose the strategically ideal spot to found a new city in 1191. Bern’s coat of arms, sporting a bear, first appeared in 1224, and to this day bears remain indelibly associated with the city. In 1339, at the battle of Laupen, Bern defeated the united nobility of Burgundy, and asserted its newfound independence by joining the Swiss Confederation in 1353.
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Its first appearance in history, is as a city conquered in the 15th century BC by the Pharaoh Thutmosis III. Damascus was conquered in 333 BC by Parmenion. In 66 BC it was occupied by Pompey and belonged to the province of Syria. After resistance and a few uprisings, Syria was proclaimed Independent by the French general, Catroux, on September 16th 1941.
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In October 1949 the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded on the mainland by the victorious communists. Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalists continued to hold out on Taiwan, establishing Taipei as the "provisional" capital of the Republic of China (ROC). Throughout the Cold War, each side regarded itself as the sole legitimate government of China.
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Although the name of the city is rather new, its historical past dated back as far as 3 thousand years. Archeologists have dug out the remains of Greek-Bactrian settlements, the site of ancient settlement from Kushan period (7th - 8th centuries). From 1929 to 1990 it was the capital of Tajik SSR, and since 1991 it has been the capital of independent Tajikistan.
   has the capital   
Dar Es Salaam
It became the capital in 1891, when the German colonial authorities transferred their seat of government from Bagamoyo, whose port was unsuitable for steamships.
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Bangkok is known by Thais as Krungthep (or a much longer version of this), which means City of Angels.
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Lome is a port on the Gulf of Guinea. It was originally known as Bey Beach.
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The capital was badly affected by pro-democracy riots in 2006. 80% of the CBD was destroyed. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy.
Trinidad and Tobago
   has the capital   
Port-of-Spain is located in the northwest of the island of Trinidad. As well as being the capital it is the chief port of Trinidad and Tobago. It was the capital of the Federation of the West Indies from 1958 until it was dissolved in 1962.
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Tunis is one of the oldest cities in the Mediterranean area. The ruins of the ancient city of Carthage are nearby. The Arab League had its headquarters in Tunis from 1979 to 1990.
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The city was established over 3000 years ago at the intersection of caravan routes and at one time was part of the Roman Empire. It was declared capital of the new Turkish empire in 1923. It is one of the driest places in Turkey.
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The city began as a military fort and desert oasis. It was almost wiped out by an earthquake in 1948. The name was changed from Ashkhabad in 1992 to reflect the original Turkmen name more accurately.
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In 1974 the Ellice Islanders voted for separate British dependency status as Tuvalu. They became fully independent in 1978 and in 1979 signed a treaty of friendship with the United States, which recognized Tuvalu's possession of four small islands formerly claimed by the United States. In 2001 the government requested help from Australia and New Zealand in resettling its citizens if global warming leads to a significant rise in ocean waters.
   has the capital   
Kampala grew up around a port constructed by Frederick Lugard in 1890 for the British East Africa Company. In 1890, Kampala was declared the headquarters of Uganda's colonial administration. The city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs (built in 1881), the Buganda Parliament, the Buganda Court of Justice and the Naggalabi Buddo Coronation Site. Severely damaged in the Ugandan-Tanzanian War, the city has since been rebuilt.
   has the capital   
Archeological excavations show evidence of the first settlement on the territory of Kiev 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. Kiev`s development accelerated durign the reign of Prince Volodymir the Great (980-1015). the autumn of 1240, the Tatar-Mongols headed by Batiy Khan, captured Kiev after series of long and bloody battles. In the 15 th century Kiev was granted the "Magdenburg Rights", which permitted greater independence of the city in matters of international commerce. On August, 24, 1991 the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine proclaims the Declaration of Independence.
The United Arab Emirates
   has the capital   
Abu Dhabi
The United Arab Emirates, UAE, had settlements as far back as the Late Stone Age (5500 BC). The first oil concessions were granted in 1939 but it was not until 14 years later that oil was discovered. Abu Dhabi began exporting crude oil in 1962 and with revenues growing steadily as oil production increased, became the richest emirate from being the poorest.
The United Kingdom
   has the capital   
London has a rich and interesting history which started in 43 AD when the Romans founded Londinium.
The United States of America
   has the capital   
Washington, D.C.
DC history began in 1790 when Congress directed selection of a new capital site, 100 sq mi, along the Potomac. The seat of government was transferred from Philadelphia to Washington on Dec. 1, 1800, and President John Adams became the first resident in the White House.
   has the capital   
Montevideo was founded in 1724 by the Spanish Crown. It was also the rivalry between Uruguay's northern and southern neighbors that led to the country's independence in 1828.
   has the capital   
First information about Tashkent as city settling is in the ancient east sources of the second century before A.D. In China sources it was called Yuni; in the inscription of the year 262 before A.D. the name Tashkent was appeared from the Turkic sources of 9-12 centuries. In Russia in 15th century it was famous as Tashkura.
   has the capital   
In 1606, the first Europeans arrived at the island, led by Pedro Fernández de Quirós and Luis Váez de Torres. In the 19th century, French settlers established the municipality of Franceville, which declared independence in 1889 and became the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or race.
   has the capital   
Discovered by Francisco Fajardo from the nearby Margarita Island in 1560. In 1577, the governor Juan de Pimentel nominated the town to become the administrative center of the Province of Venezuela; thus, Caracas became the third and final capital of Venezuela.
   has the capital   
Much of Vietnamese history has been defined by the desire to resist Chinese domination while at the same time benefiting from Chinese cultural institutions. At the beginning of the eleventh century, it became the capital of Vietnam. Hanoi became the capital of French Indochina and remained so until 1940, when the Japanese came in and took over. At the end of World War II, the Japanese freed Vietnam and Hanoi began operating as a modern capital city.
The Virgin Islands
   has the capital   
Charlotte Amalie
Charlotte Amalie history starts with the nautical discoveries of Christopher Columbus in the 1490s and the decision of Spain to establish a landed empire in the Caribbean after 1502.
Wallis and Futuna
   has the capital   
The Futuna island group was discovered by the Dutch in 1616 and Wallis by the British in 1767, but it was the French who declared a protectorate over the islands in 1842. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory.
   has the capital   
On May 22, 1990, North and South Yemen officially merged to become the Republic of Yemen. Sanaa was declared the political capital of the Republic of Yemen, and Aden the economic capital. By the summer of 1990 more than 30 new political parties had formed in Yemen.
   has the capital   
While forming Northern Rhodesia in the 1890s, the area in which Lusaka is situated was taken over by the British South Africa Company from the local chiefs. The city was founded in 1905 and was named after David Livingstone, the Scots explorer. After the federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia took place in 1953, Lusaka was a hub of the civil-disobedience movement in 1960 that led to the creation of the independent state of Zambia, Lusaka becoming the capital. In 1976 the city and its surrounding became a province.
   has the capital   
Harare was founded in 1890 as a fort by the Pioneer Column, a mercenary force organized by Cecil Rhodes. Originally, the city was named Salisbury after the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, then British prime minister. Salisbury was the capital of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963.

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