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Beaufort Wind Scale

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The Beaufort scale of wind force was developed in 1805 by British navy officer and hydrographer Francis Beaufort. It is not based on instrumental measurement but on observation alone.

12 facts:

   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Light Air
1-3 knots 2-5km/h (1-3mph). Sea lightly rippled. Direction shown by smoke drift but not by wind vanes.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Light Breeze
4-6 knots 6-11 km/h (4-7 mph). Small wavelets; crests do not break. Wind felt on face; leaves rustle; wind vanes moved by wind; flags wave slightly.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Gentle Breeze
7-10 knots 12-19 km/h (8-12 mph). Large wavelets; crests begin to break; possible scattered white horses. Leaves and twigs in constant motion; light flags extended.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Moderate Breeze
11-16 knots 20-29 km/h (13-18 mph). Small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses. Raises dust and loose paper; small branches moved; flags flap.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Fresh Breeze
17-21 knots 30-39 km/h (19-24mph). Moderate waves taking a more pronounced long form; many white horses; the chance of some spray. Small trees in leaf begin to sway; crested wavelets form on inland waters.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Strong Breeze
22-27 knots 40-50 km/h (25-31mph) . Large waves form; white foam crests more extensive; probably some spray. Large branches in motion; whistling heard in telephone and overhead power lines; umbrellas used with difficulty.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Moderate Gale/Near Gale
28-33 knots 51-62 km/h (32-38 mph). Whole trees in motion; inconvenience felt when walking against the wind. Sea heaps up; foam blown in streaks along direction of wind; spindrift begins to be seen.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Gale/Fresh Gale
34-40 knots 63-75 km/h (39-46 mph). Moderately high waves; edges of crests break in to spindrift; foam is blown in well marked streaks along the direction of the wind. Twigs break off trees; progress generally impeded.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Strong Gale/Severe Gale
41-47 knots 76-87 km/h (47-54mph). High waves; sea begins to roll; spray affects visibility. Branches break off trees; slight structural damage, roofing dislodged.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Storm/Whole Gale
48-55 knots 88-102 km/h (55-63 mph). Very high waves with long overhanging crests; sea takes on white appearance; heavy rolling of the sea. Seldom experienced inland; trees uprooted; considerable structural damage.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
Violent Storm
56-63 knots 103-117 km/h (64-72mph). Exceptionally high waves;small and medium sized ships occasionally lost from view behind waves; edges of wave crests blown into froth. Rarely experienced inland; widespread damage.
   is rated on the Beaufort Scale as   
64 knots or more 118 km/h or more (75 mph or more). Air filled with foam and spray; sea completely white with driving spray; visibility seriuosly affected. Very rarely experienced inland; severe and extensive damage.

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