Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly) during pregnancy. Pregnant mothers need to take adequate amounts during pregnancy to avoid neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Vitamins and minerals are required to make red blood cells. In addition to iron, vitamin B12 and folate are required for the proper production of hemoglobin. Deficiency in any of these may cause anemia because of inadequate production of red blood cells.