In 500BC People of the Linear Ceramics Culture build the 1st archeologically proven settlement of the territory. In 1291 Bratislava is granted city privileges. In 1993 Slovakia becomes an independent state with Bratislava as the capital.
This actually translates as "the Slovak Republic". The full and official designation for Slovakia is the Slovak Republic and hence both terms refer to the same nation-state. For formal purposes use the official designation: the Slovak Republic.