Ends the Thirty Years War
Ends the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War, and establishes the principle of the sovereignty of nations in use today.
Divides the island of Saint Martin between France and the Netherlands.
Nicknamed "The Arrage". Strangled in Istanbul at the behest of the Grand Vizier.
Nicknamed "The Hunter". Deposed in 1687 following the Ottoman defeat at the Second Battle of Mohacs.
This series of wars involved many European countries and left an estimated eight million dead.
By John Barclay Pick, 1959
It is estimated that around 8 million Germans died either from typhus or bubonic plague during the war.